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An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

Wu M, Xiao H, Ren W, Yin J, Hu J, Duan J, Liu G, Tan B, Xiong X, Oso AO, Adeola O, Yao K, Yin Y, Li T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products.The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05).Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05). Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Addition glutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). These novel findings indicate that glutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

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Antioxidant enzymes activities in each group.A: SOD activity in each group at day 15 and 30. B: GSH-Px activity in each group at day 15 and 30. Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation. Data are presented as means ± SEM, n = 5 for treatments, with a-d used to indicate statistically significant difference (P<0.05, one way ANOVA method). SOD: superoxide dismutase (U/ml); GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase (U/ml).
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pone-0113687-g001: Antioxidant enzymes activities in each group.A: SOD activity in each group at day 15 and 30. B: GSH-Px activity in each group at day 15 and 30. Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation. Data are presented as means ± SEM, n = 5 for treatments, with a-d used to indicate statistically significant difference (P<0.05, one way ANOVA method). SOD: superoxide dismutase (U/ml); GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase (U/ml).

Mentions: Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in the progression of DON-induced injuries, and investigations have found that dietary supplementation with DON increases the production of reactive oxygen metabolities, such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide [19]. Furthermore, glutamic acid plays a crucial role in the intestinal tract as a regulator of oxidative reactions [11]. Thus, we determined the activities of two major factors in the anti-oxidative system: SOD and GSH-Px. As shown in Fig. 1, there was no significant difference in SOD between the NC and GLU groups on days 15 and 30 (Fig. 1 A), or in GSH-Px on day 15 (Fig. 1 B). However, treatment with GLU increased (P<0.05) GSH-Px activity on day 30, compared to that in the NC group (Fig. 1 B). DON decreased (P<0.05) SOD and GSH-Px activities compared with those in the control on days 15 and 30. This decrease was reversed (P<0.05) by supplementation with glutamic acid on days 15 and 30 (Figs. 1 A and B).


An NMR-based metabolomic approach to investigate the effects of supplementation with glutamic acid in piglets challenged with deoxynivalenol.

Wu M, Xiao H, Ren W, Yin J, Hu J, Duan J, Liu G, Tan B, Xiong X, Oso AO, Adeola O, Yao K, Yin Y, Li T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Antioxidant enzymes activities in each group.A: SOD activity in each group at day 15 and 30. B: GSH-Px activity in each group at day 15 and 30. Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation. Data are presented as means ± SEM, n = 5 for treatments, with a-d used to indicate statistically significant difference (P<0.05, one way ANOVA method). SOD: superoxide dismutase (U/ml); GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase (U/ml).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263475&req=5

pone-0113687-g001: Antioxidant enzymes activities in each group.A: SOD activity in each group at day 15 and 30. B: GSH-Px activity in each group at day 15 and 30. Dietary treatments were NC, an uncontaminated basal diet, DON, the basal contaminated with 4mg/kg deoxynivalenol, GLU, uncontaminated basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation, and DG, deoxynivalenol-contaminated (4 mg/kg) basal diet with 2% glutamic acid supplementation. Data are presented as means ± SEM, n = 5 for treatments, with a-d used to indicate statistically significant difference (P<0.05, one way ANOVA method). SOD: superoxide dismutase (U/ml); GSH-PX: glutathione peroxidase (U/ml).
Mentions: Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in the progression of DON-induced injuries, and investigations have found that dietary supplementation with DON increases the production of reactive oxygen metabolities, such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide [19]. Furthermore, glutamic acid plays a crucial role in the intestinal tract as a regulator of oxidative reactions [11]. Thus, we determined the activities of two major factors in the anti-oxidative system: SOD and GSH-Px. As shown in Fig. 1, there was no significant difference in SOD between the NC and GLU groups on days 15 and 30 (Fig. 1 A), or in GSH-Px on day 15 (Fig. 1 B). However, treatment with GLU increased (P<0.05) GSH-Px activity on day 30, compared to that in the NC group (Fig. 1 B). DON decreased (P<0.05) SOD and GSH-Px activities compared with those in the control on days 15 and 30. This decrease was reversed (P<0.05) by supplementation with glutamic acid on days 15 and 30 (Figs. 1 A and B).

Bottom Line: Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products.The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05).Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central China, Ministry of Agriculture, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center of Healthy Livestock Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

ABSTRACT
Deoxynivalenol (DON) has various toxicological effects in humans and pigs that result from the ingestion of contaminated cereal products. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation with glutamic acid on piglets challenged with DON. A total of 20 piglets weaned at 28 d of age were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments (5 piglets/treatment): 1) basal diet, negative control (NC); 2) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON (DON); 3) basal diet +2% (g/g) glutamic acid (GLU); 4) basal diet +4 mg/kg DON +2% glutamic acid (DG). A 7-d adaptation period was followed by 30 days of treatment. A metabolite analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR)-based metabolomic technology and the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities for plasma, as well as the activity of Caspase-3 and the proliferation of epithelial cells were conducted. The results showed that contents of low-density lipoprotein, alanine, arginine, acetate, glycoprotein, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), glycine, lactate, and urea, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio were higher but high-density lipoprotein, proline, citrate, choline, unsaturated lipids and fumarate were lower in piglets of DON treatment than that of NC treatment (P<0.05). Compared with DON treatment, dietary supplementation with glutamic acid increased the plasma concentrations of proline, citrate, creatinine, unsaturated lipids, and fumarate, and decreased the concentrations of alanine, glycoprotein, TMAO, glycine, and lactate, as well as the glutamate/creatinine ratio (P<0.05). Addition glutamic acid to DON treatment increased the plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes for the jejunum and ileum (P<0.05). These novel findings indicate that glutamic acid has the potential to repair the injuries associated with oxidative stress as well as the disturbances of energy and amino acid metabolism induced by DON.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus