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An Insight into the proteome of Crithidia fasciculata choanomastigotes as a comparative approach to axenic growth, peanut lectin agglutination and differentiation of Leishmania spp. promastigotes.

Alcolea PJ, Alonso A, García-Tabares F, Toraño A, Larraga V - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: A ground-breaking analysis of differential protein abundance in Crithidia fasciculata is reported herein.The comparison of the outcome with previous gene expression profiling studies developed in the related human pathogens of the genus Leishmania has revealed substantial differences between the motile stages of these closely related organisms in abundance of proteins involved in catabolism, redox homeostasis, intracellular signalling, and gene expression regulation.The result is that choanomastigotes are able to agglutinate with peanut lectin and a non-agglutinating subpopulation can be also isolated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biology of Infections and Service of Proteomics and Genomics, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The life cycle of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata is monogenetic, as the unique hosts of these parasites are different species of culicids. The comparison of these non-pathogenic microorganisms evolutionary close to other species of trypanosomatids that develop digenetic life cycles and cause chronic severe sickness to millions of people worldwide is of outstanding interest. A ground-breaking analysis of differential protein abundance in Crithidia fasciculata is reported herein. The comparison of the outcome with previous gene expression profiling studies developed in the related human pathogens of the genus Leishmania has revealed substantial differences between the motile stages of these closely related organisms in abundance of proteins involved in catabolism, redox homeostasis, intracellular signalling, and gene expression regulation. As L. major and L. infantum agglutinate with peanut lectin and non-agglutinating parasites are more infective, the agglutination properties were evaluated in C. fasciculata. The result is that choanomastigotes are able to agglutinate with peanut lectin and a non-agglutinating subpopulation can be also isolated. As a difference with L. infantum, the non-agglutinating subpopulation over-expresses the whole machinery for maintenance of redox homeostasis and the translation factors eIF5a, EF1α and EF2, what suggests a relationship between the lack of agglutination and a differentiation process.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Differentially expressed proteins related with carbohydrate metabolic processes in C. fasciculata choanomastigotes.Functional connection of differentially expressed enzymes involved in glucid metabolic processes. Legend: proteins/protein variants in blue are constitutively expressed throughout the growth curve; proteins/protein variants in orange are up-regulated at day 1 or 2 (logarithmic phase); proteins/variants in green are up-regulated at day 3 or 4 (late logarithmic/stationary phase); proteins in red are up-regulated in PNA+ choanomastigotes; proteins in purple are up-regulated in PNA- choanomastigotes.
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pone-0113837-g003: Differentially expressed proteins related with carbohydrate metabolic processes in C. fasciculata choanomastigotes.Functional connection of differentially expressed enzymes involved in glucid metabolic processes. Legend: proteins/protein variants in blue are constitutively expressed throughout the growth curve; proteins/protein variants in orange are up-regulated at day 1 or 2 (logarithmic phase); proteins/variants in green are up-regulated at day 3 or 4 (late logarithmic/stationary phase); proteins in red are up-regulated in PNA+ choanomastigotes; proteins in purple are up-regulated in PNA- choanomastigotes.

Mentions: According to proteome profiling, glycolysis is more active in early and mid logarithmic phase (Fig. 3, Table 1), when several protein variants alternate. In fact, two aldolase (ALD) and two enolase variants are up-regulated at day 1 but at the second day, their expression levels decay and are replaced by distinct ones, respectively one ALD and two enolases. Additionally, an hexokinase (HK) variant, the pyruvate kinase (PyrK), a putative and a glycosomal malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) and E1α are more abundant at day 2 (mid logarithmic phase), which suggests higher activity of hexose catabolic processes and malate shuttles, provided that most of the glucolytic reactions take place in the glycosome of these organisms (reviewed in [23]). In fact, other monosaccharides may be increasingly utilized by choanomastigotes in mid logarithmic phase as additional carbon and energy sources and/or to provide precursors for the biosynthesis of glycans. This is suggested on the basis of the wide substrate specificity of the HK and the up-regulation of the phosphomannomutase (PMM) and the aldose 1-epimerase (AEP). The PMM is involved in the biosynthesis of N-glycans providing manose-1-phosphate, as the reaction is reversible. The AEP is also up-regulated at the stationary phase, especially in PNA- choanomastigotes (Tables 1 and 3). As highlighted in Fig. 3, the up-regulation of these ALD variants may yield high levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate not only for the subsequent glucolytic reactions but also for the pentose-phosphate shunt, provided the up-regulation of the transaldolase B (TALDO) at early logarithmic phase (day 1) and the transketolase (TKETO) at mid logarithmic and stationary phase. These proteins are related functionally with the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase (PRPPS), which is more abundant at day 2. These findings are indicative of maximum activity of the glucolytic pathway at mid logarithmic phase providing energy and essential precursors of certain amino acids, ribonucleotides and derived coenzymes. By contrast, the highest expression levels of genes involved in glucolysis are found in L. infantum promastigotes in stationary phase [24] and differential regulation of genes involved in the pentose phosphate shunt has not been detected up to date in these pathogenic trypanosomatids.


An Insight into the proteome of Crithidia fasciculata choanomastigotes as a comparative approach to axenic growth, peanut lectin agglutination and differentiation of Leishmania spp. promastigotes.

Alcolea PJ, Alonso A, García-Tabares F, Toraño A, Larraga V - PLoS ONE (2014)

Differentially expressed proteins related with carbohydrate metabolic processes in C. fasciculata choanomastigotes.Functional connection of differentially expressed enzymes involved in glucid metabolic processes. Legend: proteins/protein variants in blue are constitutively expressed throughout the growth curve; proteins/protein variants in orange are up-regulated at day 1 or 2 (logarithmic phase); proteins/variants in green are up-regulated at day 3 or 4 (late logarithmic/stationary phase); proteins in red are up-regulated in PNA+ choanomastigotes; proteins in purple are up-regulated in PNA- choanomastigotes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263474&req=5

pone-0113837-g003: Differentially expressed proteins related with carbohydrate metabolic processes in C. fasciculata choanomastigotes.Functional connection of differentially expressed enzymes involved in glucid metabolic processes. Legend: proteins/protein variants in blue are constitutively expressed throughout the growth curve; proteins/protein variants in orange are up-regulated at day 1 or 2 (logarithmic phase); proteins/variants in green are up-regulated at day 3 or 4 (late logarithmic/stationary phase); proteins in red are up-regulated in PNA+ choanomastigotes; proteins in purple are up-regulated in PNA- choanomastigotes.
Mentions: According to proteome profiling, glycolysis is more active in early and mid logarithmic phase (Fig. 3, Table 1), when several protein variants alternate. In fact, two aldolase (ALD) and two enolase variants are up-regulated at day 1 but at the second day, their expression levels decay and are replaced by distinct ones, respectively one ALD and two enolases. Additionally, an hexokinase (HK) variant, the pyruvate kinase (PyrK), a putative and a glycosomal malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) and E1α are more abundant at day 2 (mid logarithmic phase), which suggests higher activity of hexose catabolic processes and malate shuttles, provided that most of the glucolytic reactions take place in the glycosome of these organisms (reviewed in [23]). In fact, other monosaccharides may be increasingly utilized by choanomastigotes in mid logarithmic phase as additional carbon and energy sources and/or to provide precursors for the biosynthesis of glycans. This is suggested on the basis of the wide substrate specificity of the HK and the up-regulation of the phosphomannomutase (PMM) and the aldose 1-epimerase (AEP). The PMM is involved in the biosynthesis of N-glycans providing manose-1-phosphate, as the reaction is reversible. The AEP is also up-regulated at the stationary phase, especially in PNA- choanomastigotes (Tables 1 and 3). As highlighted in Fig. 3, the up-regulation of these ALD variants may yield high levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate not only for the subsequent glucolytic reactions but also for the pentose-phosphate shunt, provided the up-regulation of the transaldolase B (TALDO) at early logarithmic phase (day 1) and the transketolase (TKETO) at mid logarithmic and stationary phase. These proteins are related functionally with the phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase (PRPPS), which is more abundant at day 2. These findings are indicative of maximum activity of the glucolytic pathway at mid logarithmic phase providing energy and essential precursors of certain amino acids, ribonucleotides and derived coenzymes. By contrast, the highest expression levels of genes involved in glucolysis are found in L. infantum promastigotes in stationary phase [24] and differential regulation of genes involved in the pentose phosphate shunt has not been detected up to date in these pathogenic trypanosomatids.

Bottom Line: A ground-breaking analysis of differential protein abundance in Crithidia fasciculata is reported herein.The comparison of the outcome with previous gene expression profiling studies developed in the related human pathogens of the genus Leishmania has revealed substantial differences between the motile stages of these closely related organisms in abundance of proteins involved in catabolism, redox homeostasis, intracellular signalling, and gene expression regulation.The result is that choanomastigotes are able to agglutinate with peanut lectin and a non-agglutinating subpopulation can be also isolated.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biology of Infections and Service of Proteomics and Genomics, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The life cycle of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata is monogenetic, as the unique hosts of these parasites are different species of culicids. The comparison of these non-pathogenic microorganisms evolutionary close to other species of trypanosomatids that develop digenetic life cycles and cause chronic severe sickness to millions of people worldwide is of outstanding interest. A ground-breaking analysis of differential protein abundance in Crithidia fasciculata is reported herein. The comparison of the outcome with previous gene expression profiling studies developed in the related human pathogens of the genus Leishmania has revealed substantial differences between the motile stages of these closely related organisms in abundance of proteins involved in catabolism, redox homeostasis, intracellular signalling, and gene expression regulation. As L. major and L. infantum agglutinate with peanut lectin and non-agglutinating parasites are more infective, the agglutination properties were evaluated in C. fasciculata. The result is that choanomastigotes are able to agglutinate with peanut lectin and a non-agglutinating subpopulation can be also isolated. As a difference with L. infantum, the non-agglutinating subpopulation over-expresses the whole machinery for maintenance of redox homeostasis and the translation factors eIF5a, EF1α and EF2, what suggests a relationship between the lack of agglutination and a differentiation process.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus