Limits...
Disrupted calcium release as a mechanism for atrial alternans associated with human atrial fibrillation.

Chang KC, Bayer JD, Trayanova NA - PLoS Comput. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: As such, alternans may present a useful therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AF, but the mechanism underlying alternans occurrence in AF patients at heart rates near rest is unknown.The goal of this study was to determine how cellular changes that occur in human AF affect the appearance of alternans at heart rates near rest.Using single-cell clamps of voltage, fluxes, and state variables, we determined that alternans onset was Ca2+-driven rather than voltage-driven and occurred as a result of decreased RyR inactivation which led to increased steepness of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release slope.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Computational Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but our knowledge of the arrhythmogenic substrate is incomplete. Alternans, the beat-to-beat alternation in the shape of cardiac electrical signals, typically occurs at fast heart rates and leads to arrhythmia. However, atrial alternans have been observed at slower pacing rates in AF patients than in controls, suggesting that increased vulnerability to arrhythmia in AF patients may be due to the proarrythmic influence of alternans at these slower rates. As such, alternans may present a useful therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AF, but the mechanism underlying alternans occurrence in AF patients at heart rates near rest is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine how cellular changes that occur in human AF affect the appearance of alternans at heart rates near rest. To achieve this, we developed a computational model of human atrial tissue incorporating electrophysiological remodeling associated with chronic AF (cAF) and performed parameter sensitivity analysis of ionic model parameters to determine which cellular changes led to alternans. Of the 20 parameters tested, only decreasing the ryanodine receptor (RyR) inactivation rate constant (kiCa) produced action potential duration (APD) alternans seen clinically at slower pacing rates. Using single-cell clamps of voltage, fluxes, and state variables, we determined that alternans onset was Ca2+-driven rather than voltage-driven and occurred as a result of decreased RyR inactivation which led to increased steepness of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release slope. Iterated map analysis revealed that because SR Ca2+ uptake efficiency was much higher in control atrial cells than in cAF cells, drastic reductions in kiCa were required to produce alternans at comparable pacing rates in control atrial cells. These findings suggest that RyR kinetics may play a critical role in altered Ca2+ homeostasis which drives proarrhythmic APD alternans in patients with AF.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary of ionic model variable clamps for the single-cell cAFalt model.Results for all ionic model variable clamping simulations are summarized in bar graphs showing the percent changes in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes when model variables were clamped to even or odd beat waveforms. Alternans were eliminated (>99% decrease in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes for both even and odd beat waveforms) only when SR release variables were clamped (SR Ca2+ release flux, JSRCarel; RyR open probability, RyRo; RyR inactivated probability, RyRi; SR Ca2+ ([Ca2+]SR); and junctional Ca2+([Ca2+]j). Gating variable f (asterisk) displayed higher order instability when clamping to the even beat waveform, so the increase in alternans magnitude was considered infinitely large. Left column: SR fluxes and sarcolemmal currents. Right column: state variables.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263367&req=5

pcbi-1004011-g006: Summary of ionic model variable clamps for the single-cell cAFalt model.Results for all ionic model variable clamping simulations are summarized in bar graphs showing the percent changes in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes when model variables were clamped to even or odd beat waveforms. Alternans were eliminated (>99% decrease in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes for both even and odd beat waveforms) only when SR release variables were clamped (SR Ca2+ release flux, JSRCarel; RyR open probability, RyRo; RyR inactivated probability, RyRi; SR Ca2+ ([Ca2+]SR); and junctional Ca2+([Ca2+]j). Gating variable f (asterisk) displayed higher order instability when clamping to the even beat waveform, so the increase in alternans magnitude was considered infinitely large. Left column: SR fluxes and sarcolemmal currents. Right column: state variables.

Mentions: Since APD alternans throughout the homogenous cAFalt tissue preparation were concordant and of similar magnitude (S3 Figure), electrotonic effects and CV restitution were excluded as factors influencing these alternans. Indeed, APD and CaT alternans in the cAFalt tissue model were very similar to alternans in the isolated single-cell cAFalt model (Fig. 5, left column vs. Fig. 4, top row). We therefore concluded that cellular mechanisms gave rise to alternans in the cAFalt tissue model and decided to utilize single-cell simulations in order to investigate these mechanisms. We first used the ionic model variable clamping protocol described in detail in Methods. The percent change in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes, when each ionic model variable was clamped to its trace from either the even (short) or odd (long) steady-state beat at the alternans onset CL (400 ms), are summarized in Fig. 6 (right column: state variables, left column: currents and fluxes). Variables which resulted in >99% reduction in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes for both even and odd beat clamps were considered essential for alternans.


Disrupted calcium release as a mechanism for atrial alternans associated with human atrial fibrillation.

Chang KC, Bayer JD, Trayanova NA - PLoS Comput. Biol. (2014)

Summary of ionic model variable clamps for the single-cell cAFalt model.Results for all ionic model variable clamping simulations are summarized in bar graphs showing the percent changes in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes when model variables were clamped to even or odd beat waveforms. Alternans were eliminated (>99% decrease in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes for both even and odd beat waveforms) only when SR release variables were clamped (SR Ca2+ release flux, JSRCarel; RyR open probability, RyRo; RyR inactivated probability, RyRi; SR Ca2+ ([Ca2+]SR); and junctional Ca2+([Ca2+]j). Gating variable f (asterisk) displayed higher order instability when clamping to the even beat waveform, so the increase in alternans magnitude was considered infinitely large. Left column: SR fluxes and sarcolemmal currents. Right column: state variables.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263367&req=5

pcbi-1004011-g006: Summary of ionic model variable clamps for the single-cell cAFalt model.Results for all ionic model variable clamping simulations are summarized in bar graphs showing the percent changes in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes when model variables were clamped to even or odd beat waveforms. Alternans were eliminated (>99% decrease in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes for both even and odd beat waveforms) only when SR release variables were clamped (SR Ca2+ release flux, JSRCarel; RyR open probability, RyRo; RyR inactivated probability, RyRi; SR Ca2+ ([Ca2+]SR); and junctional Ca2+([Ca2+]j). Gating variable f (asterisk) displayed higher order instability when clamping to the even beat waveform, so the increase in alternans magnitude was considered infinitely large. Left column: SR fluxes and sarcolemmal currents. Right column: state variables.
Mentions: Since APD alternans throughout the homogenous cAFalt tissue preparation were concordant and of similar magnitude (S3 Figure), electrotonic effects and CV restitution were excluded as factors influencing these alternans. Indeed, APD and CaT alternans in the cAFalt tissue model were very similar to alternans in the isolated single-cell cAFalt model (Fig. 5, left column vs. Fig. 4, top row). We therefore concluded that cellular mechanisms gave rise to alternans in the cAFalt tissue model and decided to utilize single-cell simulations in order to investigate these mechanisms. We first used the ionic model variable clamping protocol described in detail in Methods. The percent change in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes, when each ionic model variable was clamped to its trace from either the even (short) or odd (long) steady-state beat at the alternans onset CL (400 ms), are summarized in Fig. 6 (right column: state variables, left column: currents and fluxes). Variables which resulted in >99% reduction in APD and CaT alternans magnitudes for both even and odd beat clamps were considered essential for alternans.

Bottom Line: As such, alternans may present a useful therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AF, but the mechanism underlying alternans occurrence in AF patients at heart rates near rest is unknown.The goal of this study was to determine how cellular changes that occur in human AF affect the appearance of alternans at heart rates near rest.Using single-cell clamps of voltage, fluxes, and state variables, we determined that alternans onset was Ca2+-driven rather than voltage-driven and occurred as a result of decreased RyR inactivation which led to increased steepness of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release slope.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Computational Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but our knowledge of the arrhythmogenic substrate is incomplete. Alternans, the beat-to-beat alternation in the shape of cardiac electrical signals, typically occurs at fast heart rates and leads to arrhythmia. However, atrial alternans have been observed at slower pacing rates in AF patients than in controls, suggesting that increased vulnerability to arrhythmia in AF patients may be due to the proarrythmic influence of alternans at these slower rates. As such, alternans may present a useful therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of AF, but the mechanism underlying alternans occurrence in AF patients at heart rates near rest is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine how cellular changes that occur in human AF affect the appearance of alternans at heart rates near rest. To achieve this, we developed a computational model of human atrial tissue incorporating electrophysiological remodeling associated with chronic AF (cAF) and performed parameter sensitivity analysis of ionic model parameters to determine which cellular changes led to alternans. Of the 20 parameters tested, only decreasing the ryanodine receptor (RyR) inactivation rate constant (kiCa) produced action potential duration (APD) alternans seen clinically at slower pacing rates. Using single-cell clamps of voltage, fluxes, and state variables, we determined that alternans onset was Ca2+-driven rather than voltage-driven and occurred as a result of decreased RyR inactivation which led to increased steepness of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release slope. Iterated map analysis revealed that because SR Ca2+ uptake efficiency was much higher in control atrial cells than in cAF cells, drastic reductions in kiCa were required to produce alternans at comparable pacing rates in control atrial cells. These findings suggest that RyR kinetics may play a critical role in altered Ca2+ homeostasis which drives proarrhythmic APD alternans in patients with AF.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus