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The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

van den Heuvel J, Zandveld J, Mulder M, Brakefield PM, Kirkwood TB, Shanley DP, Zwaan BJ - J. Evol. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion.We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences.This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

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Average weight (a, b) and number of eggs (c, d) for two food treatments [slow yoyo, high start (SYH), slow yoyo, low start (SYL)]. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval from a normal distribution with the average trait value as mean. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the SYH lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the SYL first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).
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fig05: Average weight (a, b) and number of eggs (c, d) for two food treatments [slow yoyo, high start (SYH), slow yoyo, low start (SYL)]. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval from a normal distribution with the average trait value as mean. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the SYH lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the SYL first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).

Mentions: In Exp #1, the effect of food on weight was dependent both on the type of food and on how long a fly remained on the food. In Exp #2, weight is similar between the first and second time on high food for both the SYH and SYL flies (Fig.5, Table S3). The SYH flies lost weight after transfer to the first low food vial and then gained weight again. The SYL flies have higher weights than the SYH flies in period 1, but lost weight in the second low vial. This difference in the first and second low food vial features is paralleled by the virgin (unfertilized) egg production data, although on average the number of eggs is higher on low food for both types of slow yoyo treatment flies (Fig.5). Again, as in Exp #1, the variation of weight (and now also the number of eggs) is both dependent on current food, the time flies spent on a specific food, and on whether they began adult life on high or low food. In contrast, the actual effect of food and time on weight differs between Exp #1 and #2 (compare Fig.3 with Fig.5).


The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

van den Heuvel J, Zandveld J, Mulder M, Brakefield PM, Kirkwood TB, Shanley DP, Zwaan BJ - J. Evol. Biol. (2014)

Average weight (a, b) and number of eggs (c, d) for two food treatments [slow yoyo, high start (SYH), slow yoyo, low start (SYL)]. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval from a normal distribution with the average trait value as mean. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the SYH lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the SYL first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263262&req=5

fig05: Average weight (a, b) and number of eggs (c, d) for two food treatments [slow yoyo, high start (SYH), slow yoyo, low start (SYL)]. Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval from a normal distribution with the average trait value as mean. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the SYH lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the SYL first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).
Mentions: In Exp #1, the effect of food on weight was dependent both on the type of food and on how long a fly remained on the food. In Exp #2, weight is similar between the first and second time on high food for both the SYH and SYL flies (Fig.5, Table S3). The SYH flies lost weight after transfer to the first low food vial and then gained weight again. The SYL flies have higher weights than the SYH flies in period 1, but lost weight in the second low vial. This difference in the first and second low food vial features is paralleled by the virgin (unfertilized) egg production data, although on average the number of eggs is higher on low food for both types of slow yoyo treatment flies (Fig.5). Again, as in Exp #1, the variation of weight (and now also the number of eggs) is both dependent on current food, the time flies spent on a specific food, and on whether they began adult life on high or low food. In contrast, the actual effect of food and time on weight differs between Exp #1 and #2 (compare Fig.3 with Fig.5).

Bottom Line: Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion.We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences.This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus