The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.
Bottom Line: Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion.We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences.This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.
Affiliation: Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: Figure2 suggests that the effect of food for the slow yoyo lines differs depending on whether flies are moved from low to high food or from a high to low food vial. To study this further, we assigned the weight on the first high food vial as period H1, the second as period H2, the first on low food as period L1, and the second as period L2. The effect of this can then be tested for both the high and low slow yoyo lines, although they are never on the same food at the same time. Figure3 shows, and Table S2 lists, the average and standard errors per line, per period for the first 16 measurements. The flies from the SYH treatment lost weight between the high and low food vial (t99.69 = 3.84, P < 0.001), but then gained weight again between the low and high food vial (t122.37 = −6.32, P < 0.001, Fig.3). In contrast, SYL treatment flies lost weight during the low food period (t109.66 = 2.88, P < 0.005), between the first and second low food vial, and then gained weight between the low and high food vials (t94.68 = −2.75, < 0.005). Remarkably, the difference in how food affects weight between SYH and SYL flies is only caused by the food level in the first week of adult life.
Affiliation: Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.