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The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

van den Heuvel J, Zandveld J, Mulder M, Brakefield PM, Kirkwood TB, Shanley DP, Zwaan BJ - J. Evol. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion.We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences.This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

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Average weight per period, as explained in the text, for the slow yoyo line started on high food (a) and on low food (b). Error bars indicates 95% confidence intervals of the mean. The x axis gives the period where H1 and H2 are the first and second high food vial, and L1 and L2 are the first and second low food vial. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the slow yoyo, high start (SYH) lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the slow yoyo, low start (SYL) first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).
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fig03: Average weight per period, as explained in the text, for the slow yoyo line started on high food (a) and on low food (b). Error bars indicates 95% confidence intervals of the mean. The x axis gives the period where H1 and H2 are the first and second high food vial, and L1 and L2 are the first and second low food vial. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the slow yoyo, high start (SYH) lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the slow yoyo, low start (SYL) first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).

Mentions: Figure2 suggests that the effect of food for the slow yoyo lines differs depending on whether flies are moved from low to high food or from a high to low food vial. To study this further, we assigned the weight on the first high food vial as period H1, the second as period H2, the first on low food as period L1, and the second as period L2. The effect of this can then be tested for both the high and low slow yoyo lines, although they are never on the same food at the same time. Figure3 shows, and Table S2 lists, the average and standard errors per line, per period for the first 16 measurements. The flies from the SYH treatment lost weight between the high and low food vial (t99.69 = 3.84, P < 0.001), but then gained weight again between the low and high food vial (t122.37 = −6.32, P < 0.001, Fig.3). In contrast, SYL treatment flies lost weight during the low food period (t109.66 = 2.88, P < 0.005), between the first and second low food vial, and then gained weight between the low and high food vials (t94.68 = −2.75, < 0.005). Remarkably, the difference in how food affects weight between SYH and SYL flies is only caused by the food level in the first week of adult life.


The plastic fly: the effect of sustained fluctuations in adult food supply on life-history traits.

van den Heuvel J, Zandveld J, Mulder M, Brakefield PM, Kirkwood TB, Shanley DP, Zwaan BJ - J. Evol. Biol. (2014)

Average weight per period, as explained in the text, for the slow yoyo line started on high food (a) and on low food (b). Error bars indicates 95% confidence intervals of the mean. The x axis gives the period where H1 and H2 are the first and second high food vial, and L1 and L2 are the first and second low food vial. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the slow yoyo, high start (SYH) lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the slow yoyo, low start (SYL) first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263262&req=5

fig03: Average weight per period, as explained in the text, for the slow yoyo line started on high food (a) and on low food (b). Error bars indicates 95% confidence intervals of the mean. The x axis gives the period where H1 and H2 are the first and second high food vial, and L1 and L2 are the first and second low food vial. Please note that as these are the slow yoyo lines, the slow yoyo, high start (SYH) lines first experienced two periods high food (H1 & H2) and then two periods low food (L1 & L2), whereas the slow yoyo, low start (SYL) first experienced two low food periods (L1 & L2) and thereafter two high food periods (H1 & H2).
Mentions: Figure2 suggests that the effect of food for the slow yoyo lines differs depending on whether flies are moved from low to high food or from a high to low food vial. To study this further, we assigned the weight on the first high food vial as period H1, the second as period H2, the first on low food as period L1, and the second as period L2. The effect of this can then be tested for both the high and low slow yoyo lines, although they are never on the same food at the same time. Figure3 shows, and Table S2 lists, the average and standard errors per line, per period for the first 16 measurements. The flies from the SYH treatment lost weight between the high and low food vial (t99.69 = 3.84, P < 0.001), but then gained weight again between the low and high food vial (t122.37 = −6.32, P < 0.001, Fig.3). In contrast, SYL treatment flies lost weight during the low food period (t109.66 = 2.88, P < 0.005), between the first and second low food vial, and then gained weight between the low and high food vials (t94.68 = −2.75, < 0.005). Remarkably, the difference in how food affects weight between SYH and SYL flies is only caused by the food level in the first week of adult life.

Bottom Line: Remarkably, both the manner and extent to which life-history traits varied in relation to food depended on whether flies initially experienced high or low food after eclosion.We therefore conclude that the expression of life-history traits in adult life is affected not only by adult plasticity, but also by early adult life experiences.This is an important but often overlooked factor in studies of life-history evolution and may explain variation in life-history experiments.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; Evolutionary Biology Group, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands; Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus