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Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits.

Marcos D, Widmer P, Rico E, Hafezi M, Rabl P, Wiese UJ, Zoller P - Ann Phys (N Y) (2014)

Bottom Line: Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well.We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories.The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

ABSTRACT

A quantum simulator of [Formula: see text] lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(Color online) Illustration of possible strings of electric flux between a particle–antiparticle pair. Intrinsic properties of the string, such as its tension and width, contain fundamental information about confinement. Here we show two configurations with external charges  (left) and  (right) at the boundaries. Flux strings connect the charge with the anticharge. The zig-zag boundary allows the Gauss law to be satisfied at the edges of the system.
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f000015: (Color online) Illustration of possible strings of electric flux between a particle–antiparticle pair. Intrinsic properties of the string, such as its tension and width, contain fundamental information about confinement. Here we show two configurations with external charges (left) and (right) at the boundaries. Flux strings connect the charge with the anticharge. The zig-zag boundary allows the Gauss law to be satisfied at the edges of the system.

Mentions: As mentioned above, the Gauss law, , can be violated by installing a charge–anticharge pair at two lattice sites. In this situation, the electric flux flows from particle to antiparticle [see Fig. 3 for illustrative examples and Fig. 4 for an exact-diagonalization calculation], creating strings of flux whose tension and internal structure provide information about confinement: a string has an energy proportional to its length, with the string tension being the proportionality factor. In the two-dimensional QLM a string connecting two particles of charge separates into four mutually repelling strands, each carrying fractional electric flux . Similarly, a string connecting particles of charge splits into two strands.


Two-dimensional lattice gauge theories with superconducting quantum circuits.

Marcos D, Widmer P, Rico E, Hafezi M, Rabl P, Wiese UJ, Zoller P - Ann Phys (N Y) (2014)

(Color online) Illustration of possible strings of electric flux between a particle–antiparticle pair. Intrinsic properties of the string, such as its tension and width, contain fundamental information about confinement. Here we show two configurations with external charges  (left) and  (right) at the boundaries. Flux strings connect the charge with the anticharge. The zig-zag boundary allows the Gauss law to be satisfied at the edges of the system.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263216&req=5

f000015: (Color online) Illustration of possible strings of electric flux between a particle–antiparticle pair. Intrinsic properties of the string, such as its tension and width, contain fundamental information about confinement. Here we show two configurations with external charges (left) and (right) at the boundaries. Flux strings connect the charge with the anticharge. The zig-zag boundary allows the Gauss law to be satisfied at the edges of the system.
Mentions: As mentioned above, the Gauss law, , can be violated by installing a charge–anticharge pair at two lattice sites. In this situation, the electric flux flows from particle to antiparticle [see Fig. 3 for illustrative examples and Fig. 4 for an exact-diagonalization calculation], creating strings of flux whose tension and internal structure provide information about confinement: a string has an energy proportional to its length, with the string tension being the proportionality factor. In the two-dimensional QLM a string connecting two particles of charge separates into four mutually repelling strands, each carrying fractional electric flux . Similarly, a string connecting particles of charge splits into two strands.

Bottom Line: Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well.We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories.The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

ABSTRACT

A quantum simulator of [Formula: see text] lattice gauge theories can be implemented with superconducting circuits. This allows the investigation of confined and deconfined phases in quantum link models, and of valence bond solid and spin liquid phases in quantum dimer models. Fractionalized confining strings and the real-time dynamics of quantum phase transitions are accessible as well. Here we show how state-of-the-art superconducting technology allows us to simulate these phenomena in relatively small circuit lattices. By exploiting the strong non-linear couplings between quantized excitations emerging when superconducting qubits are coupled, we show how to engineer gauge invariant Hamiltonians, including ring-exchange and four-body Ising interactions. We demonstrate that, despite decoherence and disorder effects, minimal circuit instances allow us to investigate properties such as the dynamics of electric flux strings, signaling confinement in gauge invariant field theories. The experimental realization of these models in larger superconducting circuits could address open questions beyond current computational capability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus