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Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes of bovine calves in a bacterial respiratory challenge model.

Hanthorn CJ, Dewell GA, Dewell RD, Cooper VL, Wang C, Plummer PJ, Lakritz J - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups.Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study.B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary and Diagnostic Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA. cjhan@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential diagnostic applications of serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations in calves with BRD and establish a timeline for their detection in calves experimentally challenged with Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-five cross bred dairy calves were inoculated via tracheal catheterization with either a PCR confirmed leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi isolate, a PCR confirmed leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica, or a negative control. Serum samples were collected throughout the study. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 post inoculation.

Results: M. haemolytica inoculated calves had increased lung involvement. Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups. Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study. B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

Conclusion: Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting early pulmonary inflammation in calves challenged with B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. Serum Hp-MMP 9 may also be a useful tool in detecting subclinical pulmonary inflammation in challenged calves.

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Means of serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for treatment group by date. Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration in nanograms/mL over time by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Circles above trend lines indicate significant differences from other treatment groups. Triangles below trend lines indicate significant differences from prior bleeding dates.
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Fig3: Means of serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for treatment group by date. Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration in nanograms/mL over time by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Circles above trend lines indicate significant differences from other treatment groups. Triangles below trend lines indicate significant differences from prior bleeding dates.

Mentions: Treatment group, bleeding date, and their interaction were all significant (p < 0.01) effects. On the fourth bleeding date (day 7) the mean serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for the M. haemolytica group became significantly different from the negative control, the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi, and the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica combination groups (p = 0.01, p = 0.009, and p = 0.004 respectively). This difference continued throughout the study. On the fifth bleeding date (day 9) the mean serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for the M. haemolytica group became significantly different from the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group (p = 0.006) and remained different throughout the rest of the study. The M. haemolytica group demonstrated significant elevations in serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from the first three bleeding dates to the last three bleeding dates (p < 0.02). The leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi treatment group demonstrated a small but significant (p < 0.004) elevation in serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from the pre-inoculation bleeding date to the second bleeding date (day 3) that continued throughout the study (Figure 3). This finding is consistent with other studies that have demonstrated the rapid recruitment and accumulation of neutrophils at the onset of BRD [6] as well as the action of leukotoxins to stimulate the active degranulation of bovine neutrophils [5].Figure 3


Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes of bovine calves in a bacterial respiratory challenge model.

Hanthorn CJ, Dewell GA, Dewell RD, Cooper VL, Wang C, Plummer PJ, Lakritz J - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Means of serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for treatment group by date. Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration in nanograms/mL over time by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Circles above trend lines indicate significant differences from other treatment groups. Triangles below trend lines indicate significant differences from prior bleeding dates.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263037&req=5

Fig3: Means of serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for treatment group by date. Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration in nanograms/mL over time by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Circles above trend lines indicate significant differences from other treatment groups. Triangles below trend lines indicate significant differences from prior bleeding dates.
Mentions: Treatment group, bleeding date, and their interaction were all significant (p < 0.01) effects. On the fourth bleeding date (day 7) the mean serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for the M. haemolytica group became significantly different from the negative control, the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi, and the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica combination groups (p = 0.01, p = 0.009, and p = 0.004 respectively). This difference continued throughout the study. On the fifth bleeding date (day 9) the mean serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration for the M. haemolytica group became significantly different from the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group (p = 0.006) and remained different throughout the rest of the study. The M. haemolytica group demonstrated significant elevations in serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from the first three bleeding dates to the last three bleeding dates (p < 0.02). The leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi treatment group demonstrated a small but significant (p < 0.004) elevation in serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from the pre-inoculation bleeding date to the second bleeding date (day 3) that continued throughout the study (Figure 3). This finding is consistent with other studies that have demonstrated the rapid recruitment and accumulation of neutrophils at the onset of BRD [6] as well as the action of leukotoxins to stimulate the active degranulation of bovine neutrophils [5].Figure 3

Bottom Line: Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups.Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study.B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary and Diagnostic Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA. cjhan@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential diagnostic applications of serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations in calves with BRD and establish a timeline for their detection in calves experimentally challenged with Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-five cross bred dairy calves were inoculated via tracheal catheterization with either a PCR confirmed leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi isolate, a PCR confirmed leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica, or a negative control. Serum samples were collected throughout the study. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 post inoculation.

Results: M. haemolytica inoculated calves had increased lung involvement. Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups. Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study. B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

Conclusion: Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting early pulmonary inflammation in calves challenged with B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. Serum Hp-MMP 9 may also be a useful tool in detecting subclinical pulmonary inflammation in challenged calves.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus