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Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes of bovine calves in a bacterial respiratory challenge model.

Hanthorn CJ, Dewell GA, Dewell RD, Cooper VL, Wang C, Plummer PJ, Lakritz J - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups.Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study.B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary and Diagnostic Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA. cjhan@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential diagnostic applications of serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations in calves with BRD and establish a timeline for their detection in calves experimentally challenged with Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-five cross bred dairy calves were inoculated via tracheal catheterization with either a PCR confirmed leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi isolate, a PCR confirmed leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica, or a negative control. Serum samples were collected throughout the study. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 post inoculation.

Results: M. haemolytica inoculated calves had increased lung involvement. Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups. Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study. B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

Conclusion: Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting early pulmonary inflammation in calves challenged with B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. Serum Hp-MMP 9 may also be a useful tool in detecting subclinical pulmonary inflammation in challenged calves.

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Distribution of lung involvement. Distribution of percent lung involvement by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Means with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05). Diamonds represent the group mean. Boxes represent the middle two quartiles of individual values, divided by the center line which represents the median. Bars adjacent to the boxes represent the outer two quartiles of individual values.
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Fig1: Distribution of lung involvement. Distribution of percent lung involvement by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Means with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05). Diamonds represent the group mean. Boxes represent the middle two quartiles of individual values, divided by the center line which represents the median. Bars adjacent to the boxes represent the outer two quartiles of individual values.

Mentions: The mean estimated percent lung involvement was highest for the M. haemolytica group (49%). The mixed infection group of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica had a mean lung involvement of 26%. The leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi had a mean lung involvement of 18% while the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi mean lung involvement was estimated to be 13%. The control group had a mean lung involvement estimate of 13%. There was evidence of a statistically significant (p = 0.018) difference for mean percent total lung involvement between the M. haemolytica group and the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group. There were no significant differences between the other treatment groups. Even though the control group had a lower mean percent lung involvement than the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi treatment group, the low number (4 calves) of study subjects in the control group did not have sufficient power to make it significantly different from the M. haemolytica treatment group. The mean and median values were similar in all treatment groups except the mixed infection group. This group had a high amount of variability within it as evidenced by a mean percent lung involvement of 26% and a median percent lung involvement of 5%. The high variability made drawing conclusions difficult in this group (Figure 1).Figure 1


Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes of bovine calves in a bacterial respiratory challenge model.

Hanthorn CJ, Dewell GA, Dewell RD, Cooper VL, Wang C, Plummer PJ, Lakritz J - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Distribution of lung involvement. Distribution of percent lung involvement by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Means with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05). Diamonds represent the group mean. Boxes represent the middle two quartiles of individual values, divided by the center line which represents the median. Bars adjacent to the boxes represent the outer two quartiles of individual values.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263037&req=5

Fig1: Distribution of lung involvement. Distribution of percent lung involvement by treatment group. Treatment group 0: Negative control group, Treatment group 1: leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 2: leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group, Treatment group 3: M. haemolytica group, Treatment group 4: Combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica group. Means with different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05). Diamonds represent the group mean. Boxes represent the middle two quartiles of individual values, divided by the center line which represents the median. Bars adjacent to the boxes represent the outer two quartiles of individual values.
Mentions: The mean estimated percent lung involvement was highest for the M. haemolytica group (49%). The mixed infection group of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica had a mean lung involvement of 26%. The leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi had a mean lung involvement of 18% while the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi mean lung involvement was estimated to be 13%. The control group had a mean lung involvement estimate of 13%. There was evidence of a statistically significant (p = 0.018) difference for mean percent total lung involvement between the M. haemolytica group and the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi group. There were no significant differences between the other treatment groups. Even though the control group had a lower mean percent lung involvement than the leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi treatment group, the low number (4 calves) of study subjects in the control group did not have sufficient power to make it significantly different from the M. haemolytica treatment group. The mean and median values were similar in all treatment groups except the mixed infection group. This group had a high amount of variability within it as evidenced by a mean percent lung involvement of 26% and a median percent lung involvement of 5%. The high variability made drawing conclusions difficult in this group (Figure 1).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups.Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study.B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary and Diagnostic Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011, USA. cjhan@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Serum haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin matrix metalloproteinase 9 complexes (Hp-MMP 9) have been identified as biomarkers with diagnostic potential in cattle with conditions resulting in an acute inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential diagnostic applications of serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations in calves with BRD and establish a timeline for their detection in calves experimentally challenged with Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica. Thirty-five cross bred dairy calves were inoculated via tracheal catheterization with either a PCR confirmed leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi isolate, a PCR confirmed leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi isolate, a Mannheimia haemolytica isolate, a combination of leukotoxin negative B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica, or a negative control. Serum samples were collected throughout the study. Calves were euthanized and necropsy performed on day 10 post inoculation.

Results: M. haemolytica inoculated calves had increased lung involvement. Serum Hp and Hp- MMP 9 concentrations were elevated compared to the other treatment groups. Increases in serum Hp and Hp-MMP 9 concentrations for the M. haemolytica group were significantly different from other study groups on day 7 of the study. B. trehalosi inoculated calves did not have increased lung involvement compared to control calves, but the leukotoxin positive B. trehalosi group demonstrated increased serum Hp-MMP 9 concentrations from day 3 to the end of the study compared to the pre-inoculation concentrations.

Conclusion: Serum Hp-MMP 9 concentration is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting early pulmonary inflammation in calves challenged with B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. Serum Hp-MMP 9 may also be a useful tool in detecting subclinical pulmonary inflammation in challenged calves.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus