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Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine supplementation on muscle carnosine, body composition and exercise performance in recreationally active females.

Kresta JY, Oliver JM, Jagim AR, Fluckey J, Riechman S, Kelly K, Meininger C, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Kreider RB - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: Although mean changes were consistent with prior studies and large effect sizes were noted, no significant differences were observed among groups in changes in muscle carnosine levels (BA 35.3 ± 45; BAC 42.5 ± 99; CRE 0.72 ± 27; PLA 13.9 ± 44%, p = 0.59).Similarly, although changes in muscle phosphagen levels after one week of supplementation were consistent with prior reports and large effect sizes were seen, no statistically significant effects were observed among groups in changes in muscle phosphagen levels and the impact of CRE supplementation appeared to diminish during the maintenance phase.Results of the present study did not reveal any consistent additive benefits of BA and CRE supplementation in recreationally active women.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term and chronic effects of β-ALA supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, and muscle carnosine and creatine levels in college-aged recreationally active females.

Methods: Thirty-two females were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner into one of four supplementation groups: β-ALA only (BA, n = 8), creatine only (CRE, n = 8), β-ALA and creatine combined (BAC, n = 9) and placebo (PLA, n = 7). Participants supplemented for four weeks included a loading phase for the creatine for week 1 of 0.3 g/kg of body weight and a maintenance phase for weeks 2-4 of 0.1 g/kg of body weight, with or without a continuous dose of β-ALA of 0.1 g/kg of body weight with doses rounded to the nearest 800 mg capsule providing an average of 6.1 ± 0.7 g/day of β-ALA. Participants reported for testing at baseline, day 7 and day 28. Testing sessions consisted of obtaining a resting muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis, body composition measurements, performing a graded exercise test on the cycle ergometer for VO2peak with lactate threshold determination, and multiple Wingate anaerobic capacity tests.

Results: Although mean changes were consistent with prior studies and large effect sizes were noted, no significant differences were observed among groups in changes in muscle carnosine levels (BA 35.3 ± 45; BAC 42.5 ± 99; CRE 0.72 ± 27; PLA 13.9 ± 44%, p = 0.59). Similarly, although changes in muscle phosphagen levels after one week of supplementation were consistent with prior reports and large effect sizes were seen, no statistically significant effects were observed among groups in changes in muscle phosphagen levels and the impact of CRE supplementation appeared to diminish during the maintenance phase. Additionally, significant time × group × Wingate interactions were observed among groups for repeated sprint peak power normalized to bodyweight (p = 0.02) and rate of fatigue (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Results of the present study did not reveal any consistent additive benefits of BA and CRE supplementation in recreationally active women.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Consort diagram of study enrollment.
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Fig1: Consort diagram of study enrollment.

Mentions: The present study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited apparently healthy, moderately active females between the ages of 18 and 35 years to participate in the study. Moderately active was defined as having a consistent recent history of participating in exercise (e.g., running, cycling, swimming, resistance training, fitness classes, etc.) for at least 30 minutes per day for 3-days per-week for at least 3 months. Participants were not allowed to participate if they had taken ergogenic levels of nutritional supplements that may have affected muscle mass or anaerobic exercise capacity (i.e. creatine, β-ALA, ergogenic levels of nutritional caffeine, etc.) for at least three months prior to the start of the study. Those who met entrance criteria attended a familiarization session during which time they were familiarized to the study protocol with verbal and written explanations of the study requirements. Participants still interested and meeting the entrance criteria signed informed consent statements in compliance with the Human Participants Guidelines of Texas A&M University and the American College of Sports Medicine. During the familiarization session, participants were also weighed using a standing scale and asked to perform a practice Wingate exercise test on the cycle ergometer at 75% maximal effort. Participants were instructed to find a comfortable seat height and handle bar position which was recorded for subsequent testing sessions. Following the practice Wingate test they were given guidelines to follow for maintaining and recording physical activity during their involvement in the study and scheduled for all subsequent testing sessions and randomly assigned to one of four supplementation groups. Figure 1 shows a consort diagram of those found eligible, initiated, and completed the study protocol. Individuals who did not complete the study did so for reasons unrelated to the study protocol.Figure 1


Effects of 28 days of beta-alanine and creatine supplementation on muscle carnosine, body composition and exercise performance in recreationally active females.

Kresta JY, Oliver JM, Jagim AR, Fluckey J, Riechman S, Kelly K, Meininger C, Mertens-Talcott SU, Rasmussen C, Kreider RB - J Int Soc Sports Nutr (2014)

Consort diagram of study enrollment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263036&req=5

Fig1: Consort diagram of study enrollment.
Mentions: The present study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited apparently healthy, moderately active females between the ages of 18 and 35 years to participate in the study. Moderately active was defined as having a consistent recent history of participating in exercise (e.g., running, cycling, swimming, resistance training, fitness classes, etc.) for at least 30 minutes per day for 3-days per-week for at least 3 months. Participants were not allowed to participate if they had taken ergogenic levels of nutritional supplements that may have affected muscle mass or anaerobic exercise capacity (i.e. creatine, β-ALA, ergogenic levels of nutritional caffeine, etc.) for at least three months prior to the start of the study. Those who met entrance criteria attended a familiarization session during which time they were familiarized to the study protocol with verbal and written explanations of the study requirements. Participants still interested and meeting the entrance criteria signed informed consent statements in compliance with the Human Participants Guidelines of Texas A&M University and the American College of Sports Medicine. During the familiarization session, participants were also weighed using a standing scale and asked to perform a practice Wingate exercise test on the cycle ergometer at 75% maximal effort. Participants were instructed to find a comfortable seat height and handle bar position which was recorded for subsequent testing sessions. Following the practice Wingate test they were given guidelines to follow for maintaining and recording physical activity during their involvement in the study and scheduled for all subsequent testing sessions and randomly assigned to one of four supplementation groups. Figure 1 shows a consort diagram of those found eligible, initiated, and completed the study protocol. Individuals who did not complete the study did so for reasons unrelated to the study protocol.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Although mean changes were consistent with prior studies and large effect sizes were noted, no significant differences were observed among groups in changes in muscle carnosine levels (BA 35.3 ± 45; BAC 42.5 ± 99; CRE 0.72 ± 27; PLA 13.9 ± 44%, p = 0.59).Similarly, although changes in muscle phosphagen levels after one week of supplementation were consistent with prior reports and large effect sizes were seen, no statistically significant effects were observed among groups in changes in muscle phosphagen levels and the impact of CRE supplementation appeared to diminish during the maintenance phase.Results of the present study did not reveal any consistent additive benefits of BA and CRE supplementation in recreationally active women.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term and chronic effects of β-ALA supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance, and muscle carnosine and creatine levels in college-aged recreationally active females.

Methods: Thirty-two females were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner into one of four supplementation groups: β-ALA only (BA, n = 8), creatine only (CRE, n = 8), β-ALA and creatine combined (BAC, n = 9) and placebo (PLA, n = 7). Participants supplemented for four weeks included a loading phase for the creatine for week 1 of 0.3 g/kg of body weight and a maintenance phase for weeks 2-4 of 0.1 g/kg of body weight, with or without a continuous dose of β-ALA of 0.1 g/kg of body weight with doses rounded to the nearest 800 mg capsule providing an average of 6.1 ± 0.7 g/day of β-ALA. Participants reported for testing at baseline, day 7 and day 28. Testing sessions consisted of obtaining a resting muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis, body composition measurements, performing a graded exercise test on the cycle ergometer for VO2peak with lactate threshold determination, and multiple Wingate anaerobic capacity tests.

Results: Although mean changes were consistent with prior studies and large effect sizes were noted, no significant differences were observed among groups in changes in muscle carnosine levels (BA 35.3 ± 45; BAC 42.5 ± 99; CRE 0.72 ± 27; PLA 13.9 ± 44%, p = 0.59). Similarly, although changes in muscle phosphagen levels after one week of supplementation were consistent with prior reports and large effect sizes were seen, no statistically significant effects were observed among groups in changes in muscle phosphagen levels and the impact of CRE supplementation appeared to diminish during the maintenance phase. Additionally, significant time × group × Wingate interactions were observed among groups for repeated sprint peak power normalized to bodyweight (p = 0.02) and rate of fatigue (p = 0.04).

Conclusions: Results of the present study did not reveal any consistent additive benefits of BA and CRE supplementation in recreationally active women.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus