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Distinct transcriptional profiles of ozone stress in soybean (Glycine max) flowers and pods.

Leisner CP, Ming R, Ainsworth EA - BMC Plant Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Current ground-level [O3] are estimated to reduce global soybean yields by 6% to 16%.Pod tissues responded to elevated [O3] by increasing expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, which may be involved with increased pod dehiscence in elevated [O3].This study established that gene expression in reproductive tissues of soybean are impacted by elevated [O3], and flowers and pods have distinct transcriptomic responses to elevated [O3].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. leisner1@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant and anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Concentrations of tropospheric O3 ([O3] have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution, and are high enough to damage plant productivity. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is the world's most important legume crop and is sensitive to O3. Current ground-level [O3] are estimated to reduce global soybean yields by 6% to 16%. In order to understand transcriptional mechanisms of yield loss in soybean, we examined the transcriptome of soybean flower and pod tissues exposed to elevated [O3] using RNA-Sequencing.

Results: Elevated [O3] elicited a strong transcriptional response in flower and pod tissues, with increased expression of genes involved in signaling in both tissues. Flower tissues also responded to elevated [O3] by increasing expression of genes encoding matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases that have roles in programmed cell death, senescence and stress response in plants. Pod tissues responded to elevated [O3] by increasing expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, which may be involved with increased pod dehiscence in elevated [O3].

Conclusions: This study established that gene expression in reproductive tissues of soybean are impacted by elevated [O3], and flowers and pods have distinct transcriptomic responses to elevated [O3].

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Analysis of gene ontology (GO) term enrichment of biological processes containing XTH genes in pod tissues. Biological terms with increasing overrepresentation in pod tissues exposed to elevated [O3] are represented by increasingly red colors. GO term enrichment was performed using single enrichment analysis (SEA) tool on AgriGo (http://bioinfo.cau.edu.cn/agriGO/).
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Fig7: Analysis of gene ontology (GO) term enrichment of biological processes containing XTH genes in pod tissues. Biological terms with increasing overrepresentation in pod tissues exposed to elevated [O3] are represented by increasingly red colors. GO term enrichment was performed using single enrichment analysis (SEA) tool on AgriGo (http://bioinfo.cau.edu.cn/agriGO/).

Mentions: In pod tissue, cell wall modification and calcium signaling genes showed the greatest increase in abundance in response to elevated [O3] (Table 2). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of biological processes was performed for genes differentially expressed only in pod tissue. Apoptosis, signal transduction, ATP biosynthetic processes, cellular glucan metabolic processes, protein amino acid phosphorylation and innate immune responses were enriched in pod tissue (Additional file 2). These activities are known to increase in plants in response to both abiotic and biotic stress [60-65], and the possibility that O3 stress co-opts pathways involved in biotic stress response has been previously proposed [66,67]. The genes with the greatest increase in abundance in response to elevated [O3] were xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase family proteins (XTH) (Table 2). Genes annotated as XTHs also had high mean expression, along with the greatest increase in abundance in response to O3 in pod tissue (Figure 2). These genes belong to the GO biological process of cellular glucan metabolic processes, which is highly enriched in pod tissues (Figure 7). Analysis of the putative XTH genes in soybean using RNA-Seq Atlas (http://soybase.org/soyseq/) showed that these genes were not present or in low abundance in other tissues, indicating that these genes may represent a distinct pod response to elevated [O3].Table 2


Distinct transcriptional profiles of ozone stress in soybean (Glycine max) flowers and pods.

Leisner CP, Ming R, Ainsworth EA - BMC Plant Biol. (2014)

Analysis of gene ontology (GO) term enrichment of biological processes containing XTH genes in pod tissues. Biological terms with increasing overrepresentation in pod tissues exposed to elevated [O3] are represented by increasingly red colors. GO term enrichment was performed using single enrichment analysis (SEA) tool on AgriGo (http://bioinfo.cau.edu.cn/agriGO/).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263021&req=5

Fig7: Analysis of gene ontology (GO) term enrichment of biological processes containing XTH genes in pod tissues. Biological terms with increasing overrepresentation in pod tissues exposed to elevated [O3] are represented by increasingly red colors. GO term enrichment was performed using single enrichment analysis (SEA) tool on AgriGo (http://bioinfo.cau.edu.cn/agriGO/).
Mentions: In pod tissue, cell wall modification and calcium signaling genes showed the greatest increase in abundance in response to elevated [O3] (Table 2). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of biological processes was performed for genes differentially expressed only in pod tissue. Apoptosis, signal transduction, ATP biosynthetic processes, cellular glucan metabolic processes, protein amino acid phosphorylation and innate immune responses were enriched in pod tissue (Additional file 2). These activities are known to increase in plants in response to both abiotic and biotic stress [60-65], and the possibility that O3 stress co-opts pathways involved in biotic stress response has been previously proposed [66,67]. The genes with the greatest increase in abundance in response to elevated [O3] were xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase family proteins (XTH) (Table 2). Genes annotated as XTHs also had high mean expression, along with the greatest increase in abundance in response to O3 in pod tissue (Figure 2). These genes belong to the GO biological process of cellular glucan metabolic processes, which is highly enriched in pod tissues (Figure 7). Analysis of the putative XTH genes in soybean using RNA-Seq Atlas (http://soybase.org/soyseq/) showed that these genes were not present or in low abundance in other tissues, indicating that these genes may represent a distinct pod response to elevated [O3].Table 2

Bottom Line: Current ground-level [O3] are estimated to reduce global soybean yields by 6% to 16%.Pod tissues responded to elevated [O3] by increasing expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, which may be involved with increased pod dehiscence in elevated [O3].This study established that gene expression in reproductive tissues of soybean are impacted by elevated [O3], and flowers and pods have distinct transcriptomic responses to elevated [O3].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. leisner1@illinois.edu.

ABSTRACT

Background: Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant and anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Concentrations of tropospheric O3 ([O3] have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution, and are high enough to damage plant productivity. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is the world's most important legume crop and is sensitive to O3. Current ground-level [O3] are estimated to reduce global soybean yields by 6% to 16%. In order to understand transcriptional mechanisms of yield loss in soybean, we examined the transcriptome of soybean flower and pod tissues exposed to elevated [O3] using RNA-Sequencing.

Results: Elevated [O3] elicited a strong transcriptional response in flower and pod tissues, with increased expression of genes involved in signaling in both tissues. Flower tissues also responded to elevated [O3] by increasing expression of genes encoding matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs are zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases that have roles in programmed cell death, senescence and stress response in plants. Pod tissues responded to elevated [O3] by increasing expression of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes, which may be involved with increased pod dehiscence in elevated [O3].

Conclusions: This study established that gene expression in reproductive tissues of soybean are impacted by elevated [O3], and flowers and pods have distinct transcriptomic responses to elevated [O3].

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus