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Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance.

Blanchfield A, Hardy J, Marcora S - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown.In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words.Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP), School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.

ABSTRACT
The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scatterplot showing individual time to exhaustion (TTE) data following subliminal priming with happy faces and subliminal priming with sad faces. The points above the identity line represent a greater TTE following subliminal priming with happy faces compared to sad faces.
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Figure 2: Scatterplot showing individual time to exhaustion (TTE) data following subliminal priming with happy faces and subliminal priming with sad faces. The points above the identity line represent a greater TTE following subliminal priming with happy faces compared to sad faces.

Mentions: As predicted, subliminal affective priming had a significant effect on TTE, with participants cycling for 178 s (12%) longer when they were subliminally primed with happy faces (1519 ± 787 s) in comparison to when they were subliminally primed with sad faces (1342 ± 585 s), t(12) = −2.28, p = 0.04, d = 0.88, 90% CI [38 s, 318 s]. As shown in the condition-by-condition scatterplot (see Figure 2), eight individuals performed greater on the TTE when they were subliminally primed with happy faces compared to sad faces. No order effect was present for TTE across visits, t(12) = −0.65, p = 0.53.


Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance.

Blanchfield A, Hardy J, Marcora S - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Scatterplot showing individual time to exhaustion (TTE) data following subliminal priming with happy faces and subliminal priming with sad faces. The points above the identity line represent a greater TTE following subliminal priming with happy faces compared to sad faces.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4263011&req=5

Figure 2: Scatterplot showing individual time to exhaustion (TTE) data following subliminal priming with happy faces and subliminal priming with sad faces. The points above the identity line represent a greater TTE following subliminal priming with happy faces compared to sad faces.
Mentions: As predicted, subliminal affective priming had a significant effect on TTE, with participants cycling for 178 s (12%) longer when they were subliminally primed with happy faces (1519 ± 787 s) in comparison to when they were subliminally primed with sad faces (1342 ± 585 s), t(12) = −2.28, p = 0.04, d = 0.88, 90% CI [38 s, 318 s]. As shown in the condition-by-condition scatterplot (see Figure 2), eight individuals performed greater on the TTE when they were subliminally primed with happy faces compared to sad faces. No order effect was present for TTE across visits, t(12) = −0.65, p = 0.53.

Bottom Line: The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown.In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words.Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP), School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University Bangor, Gwynedd, UK.

ABSTRACT
The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effects of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks are however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effects of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces) revealed that individuals cycled significantly longer (178 s, p = 0.04) when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 × 5 (condition × iso-time) ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during the time to exhaustion (TTE) test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = 0.04). In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer TTE (399 s, p = 0.04) in comparison to inaction words. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = 0.03). These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus