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Ginsenoside‑Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells.

Liang LD, He T, Du TW, Fan YG, Chen DS, Wang Y - Mol Med Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside‑Rg5 treatment compared with the C‑33A, HT‑3 and Me180 cells.As expected, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑ and time‑dependent increases in apoptosis.In addition, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside‑Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside‑Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA‑damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT‑3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside‑Rg5 using a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside‑Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of γH2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside‑Rg5 treatment compared with the C‑33A, HT‑3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑ and time‑dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX‑positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside‑Rg5 caused DNA double‑strands to break in a concentration‑dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside‑Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer.

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Chemical structure of ginsenoside-Rg5.
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f1-mmr-11-02-0940: Chemical structure of ginsenoside-Rg5.

Mentions: The use of ginseng as a TCM is common in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, stress and allergies in several Asian countries (11). In particular, heat-processed ginseng, which has been used for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and aging, contains ginsenoside-Rg5 (Fig. 1) as a main constituent (12–14); ginsenoside-Rg5 belongs to the family of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides (12,13) and has been demonstrated to exhibit marked anticancer activity (15,16), antidermatitic activity (17), anti-inflammatory effects in mouse lungs (18), neuroprotective effects (19) and microglial activation (20). However, the effects of ginsenoside-Rg5 on cervical cancer remain to be elucidated. During screening for the identification of TCMs that inhibit the progression of cervical cancer, heat-processed ginseng and its main constituent ginsenoside-Rg5 potently induced apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells in vitro. Therefore the present study investigated the applicability of ginsenoside-Rg5 as a potential cytotoxic or genotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer.


Ginsenoside‑Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells.

Liang LD, He T, Du TW, Fan YG, Chen DS, Wang Y - Mol Med Rep (2014)

Chemical structure of ginsenoside-Rg5.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262516&req=5

f1-mmr-11-02-0940: Chemical structure of ginsenoside-Rg5.
Mentions: The use of ginseng as a TCM is common in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, stress and allergies in several Asian countries (11). In particular, heat-processed ginseng, which has been used for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and aging, contains ginsenoside-Rg5 (Fig. 1) as a main constituent (12–14); ginsenoside-Rg5 belongs to the family of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides (12,13) and has been demonstrated to exhibit marked anticancer activity (15,16), antidermatitic activity (17), anti-inflammatory effects in mouse lungs (18), neuroprotective effects (19) and microglial activation (20). However, the effects of ginsenoside-Rg5 on cervical cancer remain to be elucidated. During screening for the identification of TCMs that inhibit the progression of cervical cancer, heat-processed ginseng and its main constituent ginsenoside-Rg5 potently induced apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells in vitro. Therefore the present study investigated the applicability of ginsenoside-Rg5 as a potential cytotoxic or genotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer.

Bottom Line: The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside‑Rg5 treatment compared with the C‑33A, HT‑3 and Me180 cells.As expected, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑ and time‑dependent increases in apoptosis.In addition, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside‑Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside‑Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA‑damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT‑3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside‑Rg5 using a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside‑Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of γH2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside‑Rg5 treatment compared with the C‑33A, HT‑3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑ and time‑dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside‑Rg5 induced significant concentration‑dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX‑positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside‑Rg5 caused DNA double‑strands to break in a concentration‑dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside‑Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus