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Promoter methylated microRNAs: potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.

Guo X, Xia J, Yan J - Mol Med Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Classical genetics alone does not fully explain how GC occurs; however, epigenetics provides a partial explanation with regard to the cause of cancer.Recently, studies concerning DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC have been frequently reported, and these studies deepen the knowledge of how epigenetic regulation of miRNAs results in GC pathogenesis and indicate novel therapeutic strategies for GC.The present review provides an overview of the reported DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Surgery and Center of Translational Medicine, Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214002, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most commonly diagnosed type of cancer worldwide and has the second highest mortality rate of all cancer types. Classical genetics alone does not fully explain how GC occurs; however, epigenetics provides a partial explanation with regard to the cause of cancer. DNA methylation, the best‑known type of epigenetic marker, represses the expression of tumor‑suppressor genes and is involved in the pathogenesis of various types of human cancer, including GC. Micro (mi)RNAs are critical in the initiation, progression, metastasis and invasion of GC through gene regulation. The dysregulation of miRNAs is widely recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Recently, studies concerning DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC have been frequently reported, and these studies deepen the knowledge of how epigenetic regulation of miRNAs results in GC pathogenesis and indicate novel therapeutic strategies for GC. The present review provides an overview of the reported DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC.

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Micro (mi)RNA regulation mechanisms. miRNAs may be regulated by a number of mechanisms, including gene mutation, alteration of DNA copies, defective transcription and dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis components, as well as by epigenetic alteration.
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f1-mmr-11-02-0759: Micro (mi)RNA regulation mechanisms. miRNAs may be regulated by a number of mechanisms, including gene mutation, alteration of DNA copies, defective transcription and dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis components, as well as by epigenetic alteration.

Mentions: The expression features and the functions of miRNAs have been widely investigated, but the underlying mechanism of miRNA dysregulation is less well-known. However, aberrant miRNA expression has been shown to be mediated by a number of mechanisms, including gene mutation, alteration of the number of DNA copies, defective transcription and dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis components, as well as epigenetic alteration (44) (Fig. 1). Among these mechanisms, DNA methylation may be pivotal in the dysregulation of miRNAs, as methylation mainly represses the expression of tumor-suppressor miRNAs that contain CGIs in promoter regions. In addition, expression of these miRNAs may be restored through demethylation, which indicates that demethylation treatment may serve as a novel therapeutic approach. Thus, DNA methylation of miRNAs requires further investigation in different types of cancer, including GC.


Promoter methylated microRNAs: potential therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.

Guo X, Xia J, Yan J - Mol Med Rep (2014)

Micro (mi)RNA regulation mechanisms. miRNAs may be regulated by a number of mechanisms, including gene mutation, alteration of DNA copies, defective transcription and dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis components, as well as by epigenetic alteration.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262514&req=5

f1-mmr-11-02-0759: Micro (mi)RNA regulation mechanisms. miRNAs may be regulated by a number of mechanisms, including gene mutation, alteration of DNA copies, defective transcription and dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis components, as well as by epigenetic alteration.
Mentions: The expression features and the functions of miRNAs have been widely investigated, but the underlying mechanism of miRNA dysregulation is less well-known. However, aberrant miRNA expression has been shown to be mediated by a number of mechanisms, including gene mutation, alteration of the number of DNA copies, defective transcription and dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis components, as well as epigenetic alteration (44) (Fig. 1). Among these mechanisms, DNA methylation may be pivotal in the dysregulation of miRNAs, as methylation mainly represses the expression of tumor-suppressor miRNAs that contain CGIs in promoter regions. In addition, expression of these miRNAs may be restored through demethylation, which indicates that demethylation treatment may serve as a novel therapeutic approach. Thus, DNA methylation of miRNAs requires further investigation in different types of cancer, including GC.

Bottom Line: Classical genetics alone does not fully explain how GC occurs; however, epigenetics provides a partial explanation with regard to the cause of cancer.Recently, studies concerning DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC have been frequently reported, and these studies deepen the knowledge of how epigenetic regulation of miRNAs results in GC pathogenesis and indicate novel therapeutic strategies for GC.The present review provides an overview of the reported DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of General Surgery and Center of Translational Medicine, Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214002, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most commonly diagnosed type of cancer worldwide and has the second highest mortality rate of all cancer types. Classical genetics alone does not fully explain how GC occurs; however, epigenetics provides a partial explanation with regard to the cause of cancer. DNA methylation, the best‑known type of epigenetic marker, represses the expression of tumor‑suppressor genes and is involved in the pathogenesis of various types of human cancer, including GC. Micro (mi)RNAs are critical in the initiation, progression, metastasis and invasion of GC through gene regulation. The dysregulation of miRNAs is widely recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Recently, studies concerning DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC have been frequently reported, and these studies deepen the knowledge of how epigenetic regulation of miRNAs results in GC pathogenesis and indicate novel therapeutic strategies for GC. The present review provides an overview of the reported DNA methylation of miRNAs in GC.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus