Limits...
The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications.

Crame JA, Beu AG, Ineson JR, Francis JE, Whittle RJ, Bowman VC - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The extensive Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E.It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event.Evolutionary source - sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The extensive Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E. Antarctic Peninsula offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the evolutionary origins of a modern polar marine fauna. Some 38 modern Southern Ocean molluscan genera (26 gastropods and 12 bivalves), representing approximately 18% of the total modern benthic molluscan fauna, can now be traced back through at least part of this sequence. As noted elsewhere in the world, the balance of the molluscan fauna changes sharply across the Cretaceous - Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, with gastropods subsequently becoming more diverse than bivalves. A major reason for this is a significant radiation of the Neogastropoda, which today forms one of the most diverse clades in the sea. Buccinoidea is the dominant neogastropod superfamily in both the Paleocene Sobral Formation (SF) (56% of neogastropod genera) and Early - Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation (LMF) (47%), with the Conoidea (25%) being prominent for the first time in the latter. This radiation of Neogastropoda is linked to a significant pulse of global warming that reached at least 65°S, and terminates abruptly in the upper LMF in an extinction event that most likely heralds the onset of global cooling. It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event. The radiation of this and other clades at ∼65°S indicates that Antarctica was not necessarily an evolutionary refugium, or sink, in the Early - Middle Eocene. Evolutionary source - sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds.

No MeSH data available.


The stratigraphical radiation of the Neogastropoda in Antarctica.Solid lines and dots depict actual fossil occurrences and ranges of 80 neogastropod species. Full details as to how the occurrences and ranges were established within the stratigraphic framework are contained within the text and S2 Appendix. Klb 9 represents the topmost Maastrichtian stratigraphic unit of the LBF, KPB =  Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, and (10) is Kplb 10, the recovery interval and topmost informal stratigraphic unit of the LBF. T1–7 =  Telms 1–7 of the LMF; ages (in Ma) are approximate and taken from Montes et al. [117] for the SF, CVF and topmost LMF. Further details on the age of the La Meseta Formation are given in S1 Appendix. Gastropods arranged in taxonomic order according to Bouchet & Rocroi [118]. 1.Heteroterma sp. 2; 2. Heteroterma sp.; 3. Antarctissitys austrodema; 4. Pyropsis sp.; 5. Taioma charcotiana; 6. Taioma sobrali; 7. Taioma bicarinata; 8. Taioma? antarctocarinata; 9. “Cassidaria” mirabilis; 10. Neogastropod, n. gen. B; 11. Austrosphaera bulloides; 12. n. gen. woolfei; 13. “Colus” delrioae; 14. Probuccinum? palaiocostatum; 15. cf. Germonea n. sp.; 16.?Pseudotylostoma pyrinota; 17. n. gen.? polaris; 18. “Penion” n. sp. A; 19. “Penion” n. sp. B; 20. Penion australocapax; 21. Prosipho stilwelli; 22. Prosipho lawsi; 23. Prosipho delli; 24. Prosipho polaris; 25. Prosipho antarctocosta; 26. Prosipho n. sp. 1; 27. Prosipho lamesetaensis; 28. Pareuthria hookeri; 29. Pareuthria n. sp. 1; 30. Chlanidota antarctica; 31. Chlanidota tuberosa; 32. Chlanidota antarctohimaleos; 33. Chlanidota?antarctohimaleos; 34. Chlanidota n. sp. 1; 35. Austroficopsis seymourensis; 36. Austroficopsis wimani; 37. Austroficopsis australis; 38. Austroficopsis austrinus; 39. Austroficopsis meridionalis; 40. n. gen. verrucosa; 41. Neogastropod, n. gen. A; 42. Cryptorhytis philippiana; 43. Microfulgur binodosa; 44. Paleopsephaea? nodoprosta; 45. Fusinus? doylei; 46. Microfulgur byrdi; 47. Fusinus? eonodatus; 48. Fusinus? suraknisos; 49. Fusinus? graciloaustralis; 50. Trophon radwini; 51. Eupleura suroabdita; 52. Turbinellidae indet.; 53. Fulgurofusus brecheri; 54. Miomelon? sp.; 55. Adelomelon fordycei; 56.?Adelomelon suropsilos; 57. Odontocymbiola amundseni; 58. Miomelon antarctica; 59. Tractolira n. sp.; 60. Volutomitra? antarctmella; 61. Volutomitra? cernohorskyi; 62. Volutomitra? iredalei; 63. Marshallaria? sp.; 64.?Cosmasyrinx (Tholitoma) antarctigera; 65. Zemacies finlayi; 66. Aforia canalomos; 67. Marshallaria? oliveroi; 68. Austrotoma n. sp.; 69. Austrotoma? ventricosa; 70. Austrosullivania lata; 71. Austrosullivania striata; 72. Gemmula askinae; 73. Spirotropis? n. sp.; 74. Typhlomangelia? n. sp.; 75. Agladrillia? n. sp.; 76. Makiyamaia? n. sp.; 77.? Splendrillia antarctoliqua; 78.? Cochlespira brychiosinus; 79. Pristimercia australis; 80. Coptostomella? notopolaris. Species 1–10 unassigned to superfamily; 11–49, Buccinoidea; 50–62, Muricoidea; 63–78, Conoidea; 79–80, Cancellarioidea.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262473&req=5

pone-0114743-g003: The stratigraphical radiation of the Neogastropoda in Antarctica.Solid lines and dots depict actual fossil occurrences and ranges of 80 neogastropod species. Full details as to how the occurrences and ranges were established within the stratigraphic framework are contained within the text and S2 Appendix. Klb 9 represents the topmost Maastrichtian stratigraphic unit of the LBF, KPB =  Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, and (10) is Kplb 10, the recovery interval and topmost informal stratigraphic unit of the LBF. T1–7 =  Telms 1–7 of the LMF; ages (in Ma) are approximate and taken from Montes et al. [117] for the SF, CVF and topmost LMF. Further details on the age of the La Meseta Formation are given in S1 Appendix. Gastropods arranged in taxonomic order according to Bouchet & Rocroi [118]. 1.Heteroterma sp. 2; 2. Heteroterma sp.; 3. Antarctissitys austrodema; 4. Pyropsis sp.; 5. Taioma charcotiana; 6. Taioma sobrali; 7. Taioma bicarinata; 8. Taioma? antarctocarinata; 9. “Cassidaria” mirabilis; 10. Neogastropod, n. gen. B; 11. Austrosphaera bulloides; 12. n. gen. woolfei; 13. “Colus” delrioae; 14. Probuccinum? palaiocostatum; 15. cf. Germonea n. sp.; 16.?Pseudotylostoma pyrinota; 17. n. gen.? polaris; 18. “Penion” n. sp. A; 19. “Penion” n. sp. B; 20. Penion australocapax; 21. Prosipho stilwelli; 22. Prosipho lawsi; 23. Prosipho delli; 24. Prosipho polaris; 25. Prosipho antarctocosta; 26. Prosipho n. sp. 1; 27. Prosipho lamesetaensis; 28. Pareuthria hookeri; 29. Pareuthria n. sp. 1; 30. Chlanidota antarctica; 31. Chlanidota tuberosa; 32. Chlanidota antarctohimaleos; 33. Chlanidota?antarctohimaleos; 34. Chlanidota n. sp. 1; 35. Austroficopsis seymourensis; 36. Austroficopsis wimani; 37. Austroficopsis australis; 38. Austroficopsis austrinus; 39. Austroficopsis meridionalis; 40. n. gen. verrucosa; 41. Neogastropod, n. gen. A; 42. Cryptorhytis philippiana; 43. Microfulgur binodosa; 44. Paleopsephaea? nodoprosta; 45. Fusinus? doylei; 46. Microfulgur byrdi; 47. Fusinus? eonodatus; 48. Fusinus? suraknisos; 49. Fusinus? graciloaustralis; 50. Trophon radwini; 51. Eupleura suroabdita; 52. Turbinellidae indet.; 53. Fulgurofusus brecheri; 54. Miomelon? sp.; 55. Adelomelon fordycei; 56.?Adelomelon suropsilos; 57. Odontocymbiola amundseni; 58. Miomelon antarctica; 59. Tractolira n. sp.; 60. Volutomitra? antarctmella; 61. Volutomitra? cernohorskyi; 62. Volutomitra? iredalei; 63. Marshallaria? sp.; 64.?Cosmasyrinx (Tholitoma) antarctigera; 65. Zemacies finlayi; 66. Aforia canalomos; 67. Marshallaria? oliveroi; 68. Austrotoma n. sp.; 69. Austrotoma? ventricosa; 70. Austrosullivania lata; 71. Austrosullivania striata; 72. Gemmula askinae; 73. Spirotropis? n. sp.; 74. Typhlomangelia? n. sp.; 75. Agladrillia? n. sp.; 76. Makiyamaia? n. sp.; 77.? Splendrillia antarctoliqua; 78.? Cochlespira brychiosinus; 79. Pristimercia australis; 80. Coptostomella? notopolaris. Species 1–10 unassigned to superfamily; 11–49, Buccinoidea; 50–62, Muricoidea; 63–78, Conoidea; 79–80, Cancellarioidea.

Mentions: In order to track this radiation more closely the stratigraphic ranges of all neogastropods in the Seymour Island section were plotted at the species level (Fig. 3). Of the eight neogastropods known from the latest Maastrichtian, only one of them, Heteroterma sp., appears to cross the K/Pg (#2, Fig. 3). However, it should be stressed that this taxonomic category is a broad one and it cannot be determined with certainty that the single specimen occurring ∼8.5 m beneath the K/Pg is precisely equivalent to either that occurring in the mid-levels of the SF, or the four from the topmost levels of the same unit (S2 Appendix). Heteroterma is an essentially Maastrichtian – Paleocene genus restricted to the high southern latitudes and eastern Pacific margins (S2 Appendix).


The Early Origin of the Antarctic Marine Fauna and Its Evolutionary Implications.

Crame JA, Beu AG, Ineson JR, Francis JE, Whittle RJ, Bowman VC - PLoS ONE (2014)

The stratigraphical radiation of the Neogastropoda in Antarctica.Solid lines and dots depict actual fossil occurrences and ranges of 80 neogastropod species. Full details as to how the occurrences and ranges were established within the stratigraphic framework are contained within the text and S2 Appendix. Klb 9 represents the topmost Maastrichtian stratigraphic unit of the LBF, KPB =  Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, and (10) is Kplb 10, the recovery interval and topmost informal stratigraphic unit of the LBF. T1–7 =  Telms 1–7 of the LMF; ages (in Ma) are approximate and taken from Montes et al. [117] for the SF, CVF and topmost LMF. Further details on the age of the La Meseta Formation are given in S1 Appendix. Gastropods arranged in taxonomic order according to Bouchet & Rocroi [118]. 1.Heteroterma sp. 2; 2. Heteroterma sp.; 3. Antarctissitys austrodema; 4. Pyropsis sp.; 5. Taioma charcotiana; 6. Taioma sobrali; 7. Taioma bicarinata; 8. Taioma? antarctocarinata; 9. “Cassidaria” mirabilis; 10. Neogastropod, n. gen. B; 11. Austrosphaera bulloides; 12. n. gen. woolfei; 13. “Colus” delrioae; 14. Probuccinum? palaiocostatum; 15. cf. Germonea n. sp.; 16.?Pseudotylostoma pyrinota; 17. n. gen.? polaris; 18. “Penion” n. sp. A; 19. “Penion” n. sp. B; 20. Penion australocapax; 21. Prosipho stilwelli; 22. Prosipho lawsi; 23. Prosipho delli; 24. Prosipho polaris; 25. Prosipho antarctocosta; 26. Prosipho n. sp. 1; 27. Prosipho lamesetaensis; 28. Pareuthria hookeri; 29. Pareuthria n. sp. 1; 30. Chlanidota antarctica; 31. Chlanidota tuberosa; 32. Chlanidota antarctohimaleos; 33. Chlanidota?antarctohimaleos; 34. Chlanidota n. sp. 1; 35. Austroficopsis seymourensis; 36. Austroficopsis wimani; 37. Austroficopsis australis; 38. Austroficopsis austrinus; 39. Austroficopsis meridionalis; 40. n. gen. verrucosa; 41. Neogastropod, n. gen. A; 42. Cryptorhytis philippiana; 43. Microfulgur binodosa; 44. Paleopsephaea? nodoprosta; 45. Fusinus? doylei; 46. Microfulgur byrdi; 47. Fusinus? eonodatus; 48. Fusinus? suraknisos; 49. Fusinus? graciloaustralis; 50. Trophon radwini; 51. Eupleura suroabdita; 52. Turbinellidae indet.; 53. Fulgurofusus brecheri; 54. Miomelon? sp.; 55. Adelomelon fordycei; 56.?Adelomelon suropsilos; 57. Odontocymbiola amundseni; 58. Miomelon antarctica; 59. Tractolira n. sp.; 60. Volutomitra? antarctmella; 61. Volutomitra? cernohorskyi; 62. Volutomitra? iredalei; 63. Marshallaria? sp.; 64.?Cosmasyrinx (Tholitoma) antarctigera; 65. Zemacies finlayi; 66. Aforia canalomos; 67. Marshallaria? oliveroi; 68. Austrotoma n. sp.; 69. Austrotoma? ventricosa; 70. Austrosullivania lata; 71. Austrosullivania striata; 72. Gemmula askinae; 73. Spirotropis? n. sp.; 74. Typhlomangelia? n. sp.; 75. Agladrillia? n. sp.; 76. Makiyamaia? n. sp.; 77.? Splendrillia antarctoliqua; 78.? Cochlespira brychiosinus; 79. Pristimercia australis; 80. Coptostomella? notopolaris. Species 1–10 unassigned to superfamily; 11–49, Buccinoidea; 50–62, Muricoidea; 63–78, Conoidea; 79–80, Cancellarioidea.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262473&req=5

pone-0114743-g003: The stratigraphical radiation of the Neogastropoda in Antarctica.Solid lines and dots depict actual fossil occurrences and ranges of 80 neogastropod species. Full details as to how the occurrences and ranges were established within the stratigraphic framework are contained within the text and S2 Appendix. Klb 9 represents the topmost Maastrichtian stratigraphic unit of the LBF, KPB =  Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, and (10) is Kplb 10, the recovery interval and topmost informal stratigraphic unit of the LBF. T1–7 =  Telms 1–7 of the LMF; ages (in Ma) are approximate and taken from Montes et al. [117] for the SF, CVF and topmost LMF. Further details on the age of the La Meseta Formation are given in S1 Appendix. Gastropods arranged in taxonomic order according to Bouchet & Rocroi [118]. 1.Heteroterma sp. 2; 2. Heteroterma sp.; 3. Antarctissitys austrodema; 4. Pyropsis sp.; 5. Taioma charcotiana; 6. Taioma sobrali; 7. Taioma bicarinata; 8. Taioma? antarctocarinata; 9. “Cassidaria” mirabilis; 10. Neogastropod, n. gen. B; 11. Austrosphaera bulloides; 12. n. gen. woolfei; 13. “Colus” delrioae; 14. Probuccinum? palaiocostatum; 15. cf. Germonea n. sp.; 16.?Pseudotylostoma pyrinota; 17. n. gen.? polaris; 18. “Penion” n. sp. A; 19. “Penion” n. sp. B; 20. Penion australocapax; 21. Prosipho stilwelli; 22. Prosipho lawsi; 23. Prosipho delli; 24. Prosipho polaris; 25. Prosipho antarctocosta; 26. Prosipho n. sp. 1; 27. Prosipho lamesetaensis; 28. Pareuthria hookeri; 29. Pareuthria n. sp. 1; 30. Chlanidota antarctica; 31. Chlanidota tuberosa; 32. Chlanidota antarctohimaleos; 33. Chlanidota?antarctohimaleos; 34. Chlanidota n. sp. 1; 35. Austroficopsis seymourensis; 36. Austroficopsis wimani; 37. Austroficopsis australis; 38. Austroficopsis austrinus; 39. Austroficopsis meridionalis; 40. n. gen. verrucosa; 41. Neogastropod, n. gen. A; 42. Cryptorhytis philippiana; 43. Microfulgur binodosa; 44. Paleopsephaea? nodoprosta; 45. Fusinus? doylei; 46. Microfulgur byrdi; 47. Fusinus? eonodatus; 48. Fusinus? suraknisos; 49. Fusinus? graciloaustralis; 50. Trophon radwini; 51. Eupleura suroabdita; 52. Turbinellidae indet.; 53. Fulgurofusus brecheri; 54. Miomelon? sp.; 55. Adelomelon fordycei; 56.?Adelomelon suropsilos; 57. Odontocymbiola amundseni; 58. Miomelon antarctica; 59. Tractolira n. sp.; 60. Volutomitra? antarctmella; 61. Volutomitra? cernohorskyi; 62. Volutomitra? iredalei; 63. Marshallaria? sp.; 64.?Cosmasyrinx (Tholitoma) antarctigera; 65. Zemacies finlayi; 66. Aforia canalomos; 67. Marshallaria? oliveroi; 68. Austrotoma n. sp.; 69. Austrotoma? ventricosa; 70. Austrosullivania lata; 71. Austrosullivania striata; 72. Gemmula askinae; 73. Spirotropis? n. sp.; 74. Typhlomangelia? n. sp.; 75. Agladrillia? n. sp.; 76. Makiyamaia? n. sp.; 77.? Splendrillia antarctoliqua; 78.? Cochlespira brychiosinus; 79. Pristimercia australis; 80. Coptostomella? notopolaris. Species 1–10 unassigned to superfamily; 11–49, Buccinoidea; 50–62, Muricoidea; 63–78, Conoidea; 79–80, Cancellarioidea.
Mentions: In order to track this radiation more closely the stratigraphic ranges of all neogastropods in the Seymour Island section were plotted at the species level (Fig. 3). Of the eight neogastropods known from the latest Maastrichtian, only one of them, Heteroterma sp., appears to cross the K/Pg (#2, Fig. 3). However, it should be stressed that this taxonomic category is a broad one and it cannot be determined with certainty that the single specimen occurring ∼8.5 m beneath the K/Pg is precisely equivalent to either that occurring in the mid-levels of the SF, or the four from the topmost levels of the same unit (S2 Appendix). Heteroterma is an essentially Maastrichtian – Paleocene genus restricted to the high southern latitudes and eastern Pacific margins (S2 Appendix).

Bottom Line: The extensive Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E.It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event.Evolutionary source - sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The extensive Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene sedimentary succession of Seymour Island, N.E. Antarctic Peninsula offers an unparalleled opportunity to examine the evolutionary origins of a modern polar marine fauna. Some 38 modern Southern Ocean molluscan genera (26 gastropods and 12 bivalves), representing approximately 18% of the total modern benthic molluscan fauna, can now be traced back through at least part of this sequence. As noted elsewhere in the world, the balance of the molluscan fauna changes sharply across the Cretaceous - Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, with gastropods subsequently becoming more diverse than bivalves. A major reason for this is a significant radiation of the Neogastropoda, which today forms one of the most diverse clades in the sea. Buccinoidea is the dominant neogastropod superfamily in both the Paleocene Sobral Formation (SF) (56% of neogastropod genera) and Early - Middle Eocene La Meseta Formation (LMF) (47%), with the Conoidea (25%) being prominent for the first time in the latter. This radiation of Neogastropoda is linked to a significant pulse of global warming that reached at least 65°S, and terminates abruptly in the upper LMF in an extinction event that most likely heralds the onset of global cooling. It is also possible that the marked Early Paleogene expansion of neogastropods in Antarctica is in part due to a global increase in rates of origination following the K/Pg mass extinction event. The radiation of this and other clades at ∼65°S indicates that Antarctica was not necessarily an evolutionary refugium, or sink, in the Early - Middle Eocene. Evolutionary source - sink dynamics may have been significantly different between the Paleogene greenhouse and Neogene icehouse worlds.

No MeSH data available.