Limits...
Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

Simo G, Mbida Mbida JA, Ebo'o Eyenga V, Asonganyi T, Njiokou F, Grébaut P - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele".These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals.An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Parasitology and Entomology Unit (MPEU), Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, University of Dschang, PO Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon. gsimoca@yahoo.fr.

ABSTRACT
The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made.

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Map showing the geographical localization of the sleeping sickness focus of Campo.
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Fig1: Map showing the geographical localization of the sleeping sickness focus of Campo.

Mentions: The Campo HAT focus lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is made up of several villages located along the coast and the roads (Figure 1). It is a hypoendemic focus where no epidemic outbreak has been reported for several years[17]. Campo is located in the equatorial rain forest characterized by a typical maritime equatorial climate with four seasons. The main activities of Campo inhabitants are fishing, picking, hunting and farming. The region of Campo has a dense hydrographic network with several rivers, swampy areas and marshes. The vegetation is a less degraded dense equatorial forest with farmlands, swampy areas and marshes along the coast. The Campo HAT focus is located near the Campo/Maan national park. The wild fauna composition is highly diversified[11, 18] and since 1932, Campo has been considered as a wild fauna reserve. Through the "Ntem" river, important population movements are observed between Campo Beach (Cameroon) and Rio Campo (Equatorial Guinea) for economic purposes. This region is subjected to considerable socio-economic and environmental mutations including the reopening of a new wood company "SCIEB", installation of the army, creation of new farmlands, construction of an autonomous port at "Kribi" and a dam at "Memve’ ele". These mutations may have impacted the epidemiology of many diseases.Figure 1


Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

Simo G, Mbida Mbida JA, Ebo'o Eyenga V, Asonganyi T, Njiokou F, Grébaut P - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Map showing the geographical localization of the sleeping sickness focus of Campo.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262263&req=5

Fig1: Map showing the geographical localization of the sleeping sickness focus of Campo.
Mentions: The Campo HAT focus lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is made up of several villages located along the coast and the roads (Figure 1). It is a hypoendemic focus where no epidemic outbreak has been reported for several years[17]. Campo is located in the equatorial rain forest characterized by a typical maritime equatorial climate with four seasons. The main activities of Campo inhabitants are fishing, picking, hunting and farming. The region of Campo has a dense hydrographic network with several rivers, swampy areas and marshes. The vegetation is a less degraded dense equatorial forest with farmlands, swampy areas and marshes along the coast. The Campo HAT focus is located near the Campo/Maan national park. The wild fauna composition is highly diversified[11, 18] and since 1932, Campo has been considered as a wild fauna reserve. Through the "Ntem" river, important population movements are observed between Campo Beach (Cameroon) and Rio Campo (Equatorial Guinea) for economic purposes. This region is subjected to considerable socio-economic and environmental mutations including the reopening of a new wood company "SCIEB", installation of the army, creation of new farmlands, construction of an autonomous port at "Kribi" and a dam at "Memve’ ele". These mutations may have impacted the epidemiology of many diseases.Figure 1

Bottom Line: This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele".These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals.An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Molecular Parasitology and Entomology Unit (MPEU), Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, University of Dschang, PO Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon. gsimoca@yahoo.fr.

ABSTRACT
The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview on the types of mutations occurring in the region has been raised and a discussion on the strategies that can be implemented to achieve the elimination of the disease has been made.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus