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Review of the literature and individual patients' data meta-analysis on efficacy and tolerance of nitroxoline in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

Naber KG, Niggemann H, Stein G, Stein G - BMC Infect. Dis. (2014)

Bottom Line: Clinical efficacy was determined by elimination of symptoms and safety by adverse events and laboratory tests.The safety of nitroxoline was very good and comparable to the controls (adverse events 9.4% vs 7.8%; p = 0.360).In the mMITT set (at least one outcome result), in the PP set (test of cure outcome) and in the modified PP set (missing test of cure rated failure) more than 90% of the patients showed eradication of bacteriuria with nitroxoline, which also met statistical non-inferiority compared to the controls (10% non-inferiority margin) in all three evaluation sets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Nitroxoline, a hydroxychinoline derivate, has been used for many years to treat urinary tract infections (UTI). Many uncontrolled, but only few controlled clinical studies have been published. Four so far unpublished, controlled clinical studies were meta-analysed.

Methods: A narrative literature review was performed. In addition the individual patient data (IPD) of 466 females with uncomplicated UTI of four prospective, single blind, randomized, clinical studies with similar protocols using nitroxoline (250 mg tid) versus cotrimoxazole (960 mg bid) or norfloxacin (400 mg bid) as controls for 5 days (sporadic UTI) or 10 days (recurrent UTI) were meta-analysed. The primary aim was eradication of bacteriuria 7-13 days after end of therapy (test of cure). Clinical efficacy was determined by elimination of symptoms and safety by adverse events and laboratory tests.

Results: Reviewing a total of 26 uncontrolled, 2 controlled and one postmarketing studies including more than 11,000 patients, good efficacy and safety of nitroxoline could be confirmed. In the four unpublished controlled studies a total of 234 patients were treated orally with nitroxoline and 232 with controls. The safety of nitroxoline was very good and comparable to the controls (adverse events 9.4% vs 7.8%; p = 0.360). In the mMITT set (at least one outcome result), in the PP set (test of cure outcome) and in the modified PP set (missing test of cure rated failure) more than 90% of the patients showed eradication of bacteriuria with nitroxoline, which also met statistical non-inferiority compared to the controls (10% non-inferiority margin) in all three evaluation sets. The clinical efficacy was similar between the two treatment groups.

Conclusion: The IPD meta-analysis using objective parameters (elimination of bacteriuria) demonstrated equivalent efficacy (non-inferiority) of nitroxoline with the controls tested (cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin) in the treatment of uncomplicated UTI. Considering the good safety and efficacy of nitroxoline as also shown in many uncontrolled and observational studies and the world wide increase of resistance of uropathogens against cotrimoxazole and fluoroquinolones, but not against nitroxoline within the last 20 years, nitroxoline should be reconsidered as one of the first line antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI.

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Estimated difference (95%-confidence interval) between the microbiological success and weights from random effects analysis in the mMITT-Set and PP-Set of patients treated with nitroxoline as compared to controls in the four studies analysed. mMITT-modified microbiological intention to treat; PP-per protocol.
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Fig2: Estimated difference (95%-confidence interval) between the microbiological success and weights from random effects analysis in the mMITT-Set and PP-Set of patients treated with nitroxoline as compared to controls in the four studies analysed. mMITT-modified microbiological intention to treat; PP-per protocol.

Mentions: FigureĀ 2 shows the 95% CI of the individual studies and the total result of the four meta-analysed studies together in the mMITT and the PP sets with the contributing weight of each study.Figure 2


Review of the literature and individual patients' data meta-analysis on efficacy and tolerance of nitroxoline in the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

Naber KG, Niggemann H, Stein G, Stein G - BMC Infect. Dis. (2014)

Estimated difference (95%-confidence interval) between the microbiological success and weights from random effects analysis in the mMITT-Set and PP-Set of patients treated with nitroxoline as compared to controls in the four studies analysed. mMITT-modified microbiological intention to treat; PP-per protocol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262220&req=5

Fig2: Estimated difference (95%-confidence interval) between the microbiological success and weights from random effects analysis in the mMITT-Set and PP-Set of patients treated with nitroxoline as compared to controls in the four studies analysed. mMITT-modified microbiological intention to treat; PP-per protocol.
Mentions: FigureĀ 2 shows the 95% CI of the individual studies and the total result of the four meta-analysed studies together in the mMITT and the PP sets with the contributing weight of each study.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Clinical efficacy was determined by elimination of symptoms and safety by adverse events and laboratory tests.The safety of nitroxoline was very good and comparable to the controls (adverse events 9.4% vs 7.8%; p = 0.360).In the mMITT set (at least one outcome result), in the PP set (test of cure outcome) and in the modified PP set (missing test of cure rated failure) more than 90% of the patients showed eradication of bacteriuria with nitroxoline, which also met statistical non-inferiority compared to the controls (10% non-inferiority margin) in all three evaluation sets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Nitroxoline, a hydroxychinoline derivate, has been used for many years to treat urinary tract infections (UTI). Many uncontrolled, but only few controlled clinical studies have been published. Four so far unpublished, controlled clinical studies were meta-analysed.

Methods: A narrative literature review was performed. In addition the individual patient data (IPD) of 466 females with uncomplicated UTI of four prospective, single blind, randomized, clinical studies with similar protocols using nitroxoline (250 mg tid) versus cotrimoxazole (960 mg bid) or norfloxacin (400 mg bid) as controls for 5 days (sporadic UTI) or 10 days (recurrent UTI) were meta-analysed. The primary aim was eradication of bacteriuria 7-13 days after end of therapy (test of cure). Clinical efficacy was determined by elimination of symptoms and safety by adverse events and laboratory tests.

Results: Reviewing a total of 26 uncontrolled, 2 controlled and one postmarketing studies including more than 11,000 patients, good efficacy and safety of nitroxoline could be confirmed. In the four unpublished controlled studies a total of 234 patients were treated orally with nitroxoline and 232 with controls. The safety of nitroxoline was very good and comparable to the controls (adverse events 9.4% vs 7.8%; p = 0.360). In the mMITT set (at least one outcome result), in the PP set (test of cure outcome) and in the modified PP set (missing test of cure rated failure) more than 90% of the patients showed eradication of bacteriuria with nitroxoline, which also met statistical non-inferiority compared to the controls (10% non-inferiority margin) in all three evaluation sets. The clinical efficacy was similar between the two treatment groups.

Conclusion: The IPD meta-analysis using objective parameters (elimination of bacteriuria) demonstrated equivalent efficacy (non-inferiority) of nitroxoline with the controls tested (cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin) in the treatment of uncomplicated UTI. Considering the good safety and efficacy of nitroxoline as also shown in many uncontrolled and observational studies and the world wide increase of resistance of uropathogens against cotrimoxazole and fluoroquinolones, but not against nitroxoline within the last 20 years, nitroxoline should be reconsidered as one of the first line antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus