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Where to deliver baits for deworming urban red foxes for Echinococcus multilocularis control: new protocol for micro-habitat modeling of fox denning requirements.

Ikeda T, Yoshimura M, Onoyama K, Oku Y, Nonaka N, Katakura K - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Bottom Line: Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming.Our denning models indicating suitable sites for delivering baits will improve the cost-benefit performance of the campaign.Our modeling protocol is suitable for the urban landscapes, and for extracting the heeding range when they select the den sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Parasitology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-18, West-9, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan. kitsunetsuki@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deworming wild foxes by baiting with the anthelmintic praziquantel is being established as a preventive technique against environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming. We established a spatial model of den site selection by urban red foxes, the definitive host, to specify the optimal micro-habitats for delivering baits in a new modeling approach modified for urban fox populations.

Methods: The model was established for two cities (Obihiro and Sapporo) in Hokkaido, Japan, in which a sylvatic cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained. The two cities have different degrees of urbanization. The modeling process was designed to detect the best combination of key environmental factors and spatial scale that foxes pay attention to most (here named 'heeding range') when they select den sites. All possible models were generated using logistic regression analysis, with "presence" or "absence" of fox den as the objective variable, and nine landscape categories customized for urban environments as predictor variables to detect the best subset of predictors. This procedure was conducted for each of ten sizes of concentric circles from dens and control points to detect the best circle size. Out of all models generated, the most parsimonious model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) inspection.

Results: Our models suggest that fox dens in Obihiro are located at the center of a circle with 500 m radius including low percentages of wide roads, narrow roads, and occupied buildings, but high percentages of green covered areas; the dens in Sapporo within 300 m radius with low percentages of wide roads, occupied buildings, but high percentages of riverbeds and green covered areas. The variation of the models suggests the necessity of accumulating models for various types of cities in order to reveal the patterns of the model.

Conclusions: Our denning models indicating suitable sites for delivering baits will improve the cost-benefit performance of the campaign. Our modeling protocol is suitable for the urban landscapes, and for extracting the heeding range when they select the den sites.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Application examples of the established models for the two cities. Panel A shows an application example of Obihiro model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Obihiro City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, narrow roads, occupied buildings, and green covered areas within the 500 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 5.4% of probability. Panel B shows an application example of Sapporo model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Sapporo City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, occupied buildings, riverbeds, and green covered areas within the 300 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 92.1% of probability.
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Fig5: Application examples of the established models for the two cities. Panel A shows an application example of Obihiro model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Obihiro City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, narrow roads, occupied buildings, and green covered areas within the 500 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 5.4% of probability. Panel B shows an application example of Sapporo model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Sapporo City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, occupied buildings, riverbeds, and green covered areas within the 300 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 92.1% of probability.

Mentions: Application examples of these two models are shown in Figure 5. The confidence intervals of the regression coefficients are shown in Additional file 1 and Additional file 2.Figure 5


Where to deliver baits for deworming urban red foxes for Echinococcus multilocularis control: new protocol for micro-habitat modeling of fox denning requirements.

Ikeda T, Yoshimura M, Onoyama K, Oku Y, Nonaka N, Katakura K - Parasit Vectors (2014)

Application examples of the established models for the two cities. Panel A shows an application example of Obihiro model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Obihiro City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, narrow roads, occupied buildings, and green covered areas within the 500 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 5.4% of probability. Panel B shows an application example of Sapporo model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Sapporo City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, occupied buildings, riverbeds, and green covered areas within the 300 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 92.1% of probability.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4262088&req=5

Fig5: Application examples of the established models for the two cities. Panel A shows an application example of Obihiro model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Obihiro City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, narrow roads, occupied buildings, and green covered areas within the 500 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 5.4% of probability. Panel B shows an application example of Sapporo model. If you want to know the probability of fox denning at a targeted point in the urban area of Sapporo City, 1) calculate each percentage of wide roads, occupied buildings, riverbeds, and green covered areas within the 300 m radius centered on the point, 2) apply the values to the model, and then, you can get the answer of 92.1% of probability.
Mentions: Application examples of these two models are shown in Figure 5. The confidence intervals of the regression coefficients are shown in Additional file 1 and Additional file 2.Figure 5

Bottom Line: Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming.Our denning models indicating suitable sites for delivering baits will improve the cost-benefit performance of the campaign.Our modeling protocol is suitable for the urban landscapes, and for extracting the heeding range when they select the den sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Parasitology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-18, West-9, Hokkaido, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan. kitsunetsuki@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deworming wild foxes by baiting with the anthelmintic praziquantel is being established as a preventive technique against environmental contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis eggs. Improvement of the cost-benefit performance of baiting treatment is required urgently to raise and maintain the efficacy of deworming. We established a spatial model of den site selection by urban red foxes, the definitive host, to specify the optimal micro-habitats for delivering baits in a new modeling approach modified for urban fox populations.

Methods: The model was established for two cities (Obihiro and Sapporo) in Hokkaido, Japan, in which a sylvatic cycle of E. multilocularis is maintained. The two cities have different degrees of urbanization. The modeling process was designed to detect the best combination of key environmental factors and spatial scale that foxes pay attention to most (here named 'heeding range') when they select den sites. All possible models were generated using logistic regression analysis, with "presence" or "absence" of fox den as the objective variable, and nine landscape categories customized for urban environments as predictor variables to detect the best subset of predictors. This procedure was conducted for each of ten sizes of concentric circles from dens and control points to detect the best circle size. Out of all models generated, the most parsimonious model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) inspection.

Results: Our models suggest that fox dens in Obihiro are located at the center of a circle with 500 m radius including low percentages of wide roads, narrow roads, and occupied buildings, but high percentages of green covered areas; the dens in Sapporo within 300 m radius with low percentages of wide roads, occupied buildings, but high percentages of riverbeds and green covered areas. The variation of the models suggests the necessity of accumulating models for various types of cities in order to reveal the patterns of the model.

Conclusions: Our denning models indicating suitable sites for delivering baits will improve the cost-benefit performance of the campaign. Our modeling protocol is suitable for the urban landscapes, and for extracting the heeding range when they select the den sites.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus