Limits...
Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music.

Moens B, Muller C, van Noorden L, Franěk M, Celie B, Boone J, Bourgois J, Leman M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes.Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock.The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychoacoustics and Electronic Music, Department of Musicology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user's walking tempo and phase. D-Jogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music's tempo continuously to the runner's pace. The second strategy matched the music's tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner's pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner's pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Angular histogram of alignment strategy 2 (period-fixed phase-random).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260851&req=5

pone-0114234-g008: Angular histogram of alignment strategy 2 (period-fixed phase-random).

Mentions: In total, we recorded 25,454 valid footfalls. The resulting distribution is described in Table 2, the angular histogram is shown in Fig. 8. The histogram shows a clustering of phase angles around . The distribution can therefore be interpreted as unimodal. We found that the distribution differs from a uniformly distributed one with a statistical significant mean phase angle of (Rayleigh , ).


Encouraging spontaneous synchronisation with D-Jogger, an adaptive music player that aligns movement and music.

Moens B, Muller C, van Noorden L, Franěk M, Celie B, Boone J, Bourgois J, Leman M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Angular histogram of alignment strategy 2 (period-fixed phase-random).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260851&req=5

pone-0114234-g008: Angular histogram of alignment strategy 2 (period-fixed phase-random).
Mentions: In total, we recorded 25,454 valid footfalls. The resulting distribution is described in Table 2, the angular histogram is shown in Fig. 8. The histogram shows a clustering of phase angles around . The distribution can therefore be interpreted as unimodal. We found that the distribution differs from a uniformly distributed one with a statistical significant mean phase angle of (Rayleigh , ).

Bottom Line: These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes.Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock.The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Psychoacoustics and Electronic Music, Department of Musicology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
In this study we explore how music can entrain human walkers to synchronise to the musical beat without being instructed to do so. For this, we use an interactive music player, called D-Jogger, that senses the user's walking tempo and phase. D-Jogger aligns the music by manipulating the timing difference between beats and footfalls. Experiments are reported that led to the development and optimisation of four alignment strategies. The first strategy matched the music's tempo continuously to the runner's pace. The second strategy matched the music's tempo at the beginning of a song to the runner's pace, keeping the tempo constant for the remainder of the song. The third alignment starts a song in perfect phase synchrony and continues to adjust the tempo to match the runner's pace. The fourth and last strategy additionally adjusts the phase of the music so each beat matches a footfall. The first two strategies resulted in a minor increase of steps in phase synchrony with the main beat when compared to a random playlist, the last two strategies resulted in a strong increase in synchronised steps. These results may be explained in terms of phase-error correction mechanisms and motor prediction schemes. Finding the phase-lock is difficult due to fluctuations in the interaction, whereas strategies that automatically align the phase between movement and music solve the problem of finding the phase-locking. Moreover, the data show that once the phase-lock is found, alignment can be easily maintained, suggesting that less entrainment effort is needed to keep the phase-lock, than to find the phase-lock. The different alignment strategies of D-Jogger can be applied in different domains such as sports, physical rehabilitation and assistive technologies for movement performance.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus