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Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

Samson RA, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Hong SB, Hubka V, Klaassen CH, Perrone G, Seifert KA, Susca A, Tanney JB, Varga J, Kocsubé S, Szigeti G, Yaguchi T, Frisvad JC - Stud. Mycol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health.Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium.In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, NL-3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Range of conidiophore phenotypes, which phylogenetically belong in Aspergillus. A, B. Basipetospora halophila (CBS 232.32). C, D. Dichotomomyces cejpii (CBS 157.66). E. Phialosimplex sp. (WL04MI-422). F. Phialosimplex caninus (CBS 128032). G, H. Polypaecilum insolitum (CBS 384.61). I. Diminutive conidiophores in Aspergillus arenarioides (CBS 138200). J, K. Diminutive conidiophores in A. subalbidus (CBS 567.65). L, O. Aspergillus sloanii (CBS 138177). M, N. Aspergillus ochraceus (CBS 108.08). Scale bars: A–O = 10 μm.
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fig1: Range of conidiophore phenotypes, which phylogenetically belong in Aspergillus. A, B. Basipetospora halophila (CBS 232.32). C, D. Dichotomomyces cejpii (CBS 157.66). E. Phialosimplex sp. (WL04MI-422). F. Phialosimplex caninus (CBS 128032). G, H. Polypaecilum insolitum (CBS 384.61). I. Diminutive conidiophores in Aspergillus arenarioides (CBS 138200). J, K. Diminutive conidiophores in A. subalbidus (CBS 567.65). L, O. Aspergillus sloanii (CBS 138177). M, N. Aspergillus ochraceus (CBS 108.08). Scale bars: A–O = 10 μm.

Mentions: We suggest that the conidium-bearing apparatus of species of Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex and the type species of Polypaecilum (Fig. 1), which form part of the monophyletic Aspergillus clade, evolved from Aspergillus-like conidial heads by mutations in the regulatory genes. Harris (2012) proposed that the Aspergillus-like conidial head might have evolved from a penicillus producing ancestor. Moreover, the observations that mutations in several genes taking part in the control of conidiogenesis can lead to the transition of an aspergillum to structures resembling a penicillus, indicate that the aspergillum is more ancient than a penicillus. Full genome sequencing of these isolates would enable studies aimed at determining the molecular basis for these differences, and would help to understand the evolution of conidiophore development in the Aspergillaceae.


Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus.

Samson RA, Visagie CM, Houbraken J, Hong SB, Hubka V, Klaassen CH, Perrone G, Seifert KA, Susca A, Tanney JB, Varga J, Kocsubé S, Szigeti G, Yaguchi T, Frisvad JC - Stud. Mycol. (2014)

Range of conidiophore phenotypes, which phylogenetically belong in Aspergillus. A, B. Basipetospora halophila (CBS 232.32). C, D. Dichotomomyces cejpii (CBS 157.66). E. Phialosimplex sp. (WL04MI-422). F. Phialosimplex caninus (CBS 128032). G, H. Polypaecilum insolitum (CBS 384.61). I. Diminutive conidiophores in Aspergillus arenarioides (CBS 138200). J, K. Diminutive conidiophores in A. subalbidus (CBS 567.65). L, O. Aspergillus sloanii (CBS 138177). M, N. Aspergillus ochraceus (CBS 108.08). Scale bars: A–O = 10 μm.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260807&req=5

fig1: Range of conidiophore phenotypes, which phylogenetically belong in Aspergillus. A, B. Basipetospora halophila (CBS 232.32). C, D. Dichotomomyces cejpii (CBS 157.66). E. Phialosimplex sp. (WL04MI-422). F. Phialosimplex caninus (CBS 128032). G, H. Polypaecilum insolitum (CBS 384.61). I. Diminutive conidiophores in Aspergillus arenarioides (CBS 138200). J, K. Diminutive conidiophores in A. subalbidus (CBS 567.65). L, O. Aspergillus sloanii (CBS 138177). M, N. Aspergillus ochraceus (CBS 108.08). Scale bars: A–O = 10 μm.
Mentions: We suggest that the conidium-bearing apparatus of species of Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex and the type species of Polypaecilum (Fig. 1), which form part of the monophyletic Aspergillus clade, evolved from Aspergillus-like conidial heads by mutations in the regulatory genes. Harris (2012) proposed that the Aspergillus-like conidial head might have evolved from a penicillus producing ancestor. Moreover, the observations that mutations in several genes taking part in the control of conidiogenesis can lead to the transition of an aspergillum to structures resembling a penicillus, indicate that the aspergillum is more ancient than a penicillus. Full genome sequencing of these isolates would enable studies aimed at determining the molecular basis for these differences, and would help to understand the evolution of conidiophore development in the Aspergillaceae.

Bottom Line: Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health.Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium.In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, NL-3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
Aspergillus comprises a diverse group of species based on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic characters, which significantly impact biotechnology, food production, indoor environments and human health. Aspergillus was traditionally associated with nine teleomorph genera, but phylogenetic data suggest that together with genera such as Polypaecilum, Phialosimplex, Dichotomomyces and Cristaspora, Aspergillus forms a monophyletic clade closely related to Penicillium. Changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants resulted in the move to one name per species, meaning that a decision had to be made whether to keep Aspergillus as one big genus or to split it into several smaller genera. The International Commission of Penicillium and Aspergillus decided to keep Aspergillus instead of using smaller genera. In this paper, we present the arguments for this decision. We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and GenBank accession numbers for available representative ITS, calmodulin, β-tubulin and RPB2 sequences. In addition, we recommend a standard working technique for Aspergillus and propose calmodulin as a secondary identification marker.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus