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Movement of the human foot in 100 pain free individuals aged 18-45: implications for understanding normal foot function.

Nester CJ, Jarvis HL, Jones RK, Bowden PD, Liu A - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions.There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, PO 32 Brian Blatchford Building, Salford, M6 6PU UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions. Quality foot kinematic data from healthy feet will also assist the development of high quality and research based clinical models of foot biomechanics. To address gaps in the current literature we aimed to describe 3D foot kinematics using a 5 segment foot model in a population of 100 pain free individuals.

Methods: Kinematics of the leg, calcaneus, midfoot, medial and lateral forefoot and hallux were measured in 100 self reported healthy and pain free individuals during walking. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise foot movements. Contributions from different foot segments to the total motion in each plane were also derived to explore functional roles of different parts of the foot.

Results: Foot segments demonstrated greatest motion in the sagittal plane, but large ranges of movement in all planes. All foot segments demonstrated movement throughout gait, though least motion was observed between the midfoot and calcaneus. There was inconsistent evidence of movement coupling between joints. There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.

Conclusions: The data reveal the foot is a multiarticular structure, movements are complex, show incomplete evidence of coupling, and vary person to person. The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Contribution by the calcaneus-tibia (calc-tib), midfoot-calcaneus (mid-calc), lateral forefoot-midfoot (latFF-mid), medial forefoot-midfoot (medFF-mid) and hallux-medial forefoot (hallux-medFF) segments to the total range of motion occurring at each instant of the gait cycle. +ve contributions are dorsiflexion (DF), inversion (INV) and abduction (ABD) of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment.
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Fig3: Contribution by the calcaneus-tibia (calc-tib), midfoot-calcaneus (mid-calc), lateral forefoot-midfoot (latFF-mid), medial forefoot-midfoot (medFF-mid) and hallux-medial forefoot (hallux-medFF) segments to the total range of motion occurring at each instant of the gait cycle. +ve contributions are dorsiflexion (DF), inversion (INV) and abduction (ABD) of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment.

Mentions: The kinematics of the foot segments during gait are illustrated in Figure 2. Contribution by each segment combination to the total motion in each plane is illustrated in Figure 3. The kinematic values for specific events during gait are detailed in Table 1.Figure 2


Movement of the human foot in 100 pain free individuals aged 18-45: implications for understanding normal foot function.

Nester CJ, Jarvis HL, Jones RK, Bowden PD, Liu A - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Contribution by the calcaneus-tibia (calc-tib), midfoot-calcaneus (mid-calc), lateral forefoot-midfoot (latFF-mid), medial forefoot-midfoot (medFF-mid) and hallux-medial forefoot (hallux-medFF) segments to the total range of motion occurring at each instant of the gait cycle. +ve contributions are dorsiflexion (DF), inversion (INV) and abduction (ABD) of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260241&req=5

Fig3: Contribution by the calcaneus-tibia (calc-tib), midfoot-calcaneus (mid-calc), lateral forefoot-midfoot (latFF-mid), medial forefoot-midfoot (medFF-mid) and hallux-medial forefoot (hallux-medFF) segments to the total range of motion occurring at each instant of the gait cycle. +ve contributions are dorsiflexion (DF), inversion (INV) and abduction (ABD) of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment.
Mentions: The kinematics of the foot segments during gait are illustrated in Figure 2. Contribution by each segment combination to the total motion in each plane is illustrated in Figure 3. The kinematic values for specific events during gait are detailed in Table 1.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions.There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, PO 32 Brian Blatchford Building, Salford, M6 6PU UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions. Quality foot kinematic data from healthy feet will also assist the development of high quality and research based clinical models of foot biomechanics. To address gaps in the current literature we aimed to describe 3D foot kinematics using a 5 segment foot model in a population of 100 pain free individuals.

Methods: Kinematics of the leg, calcaneus, midfoot, medial and lateral forefoot and hallux were measured in 100 self reported healthy and pain free individuals during walking. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise foot movements. Contributions from different foot segments to the total motion in each plane were also derived to explore functional roles of different parts of the foot.

Results: Foot segments demonstrated greatest motion in the sagittal plane, but large ranges of movement in all planes. All foot segments demonstrated movement throughout gait, though least motion was observed between the midfoot and calcaneus. There was inconsistent evidence of movement coupling between joints. There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.

Conclusions: The data reveal the foot is a multiarticular structure, movements are complex, show incomplete evidence of coupling, and vary person to person. The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus