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Movement of the human foot in 100 pain free individuals aged 18-45: implications for understanding normal foot function.

Nester CJ, Jarvis HL, Jones RK, Bowden PD, Liu A - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions.There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, PO 32 Brian Blatchford Building, Salford, M6 6PU UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions. Quality foot kinematic data from healthy feet will also assist the development of high quality and research based clinical models of foot biomechanics. To address gaps in the current literature we aimed to describe 3D foot kinematics using a 5 segment foot model in a population of 100 pain free individuals.

Methods: Kinematics of the leg, calcaneus, midfoot, medial and lateral forefoot and hallux were measured in 100 self reported healthy and pain free individuals during walking. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise foot movements. Contributions from different foot segments to the total motion in each plane were also derived to explore functional roles of different parts of the foot.

Results: Foot segments demonstrated greatest motion in the sagittal plane, but large ranges of movement in all planes. All foot segments demonstrated movement throughout gait, though least motion was observed between the midfoot and calcaneus. There was inconsistent evidence of movement coupling between joints. There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.

Conclusions: The data reveal the foot is a multiarticular structure, movements are complex, show incomplete evidence of coupling, and vary person to person. The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

No MeSH data available.


Marker and plate locations for the multi segment foot model.
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Fig1: Marker and plate locations for the multi segment foot model.

Mentions: A 6 segment model (leg, calcaneus, midfoot (navicular and cuboid), lateral forefoot (fourth and fifth metatarsals), medial forefoot (first metatarsal) and hallux was used to characterise foot kinematics. Rigid plastic plates were heat moulded to plaster casts of size 4 and 6 female feet, and sizes 9 and 12 male feet to enable improved fitting for different foot sizes. Each plate had three or four 7 mm markers attached (FigureĀ 1). Placement of plates on appropriate underlying bones was assisted through manual palpation and manipulation of adjacent joints (e.g. flexing/extending the fifth metatarsal to establish the location of the cuboid-metatarsal joint).Figure 1


Movement of the human foot in 100 pain free individuals aged 18-45: implications for understanding normal foot function.

Nester CJ, Jarvis HL, Jones RK, Bowden PD, Liu A - J Foot Ankle Res (2014)

Marker and plate locations for the multi segment foot model.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260241&req=5

Fig1: Marker and plate locations for the multi segment foot model.
Mentions: A 6 segment model (leg, calcaneus, midfoot (navicular and cuboid), lateral forefoot (fourth and fifth metatarsals), medial forefoot (first metatarsal) and hallux was used to characterise foot kinematics. Rigid plastic plates were heat moulded to plaster casts of size 4 and 6 female feet, and sizes 9 and 12 male feet to enable improved fitting for different foot sizes. Each plate had three or four 7 mm markers attached (FigureĀ 1). Placement of plates on appropriate underlying bones was assisted through manual palpation and manipulation of adjacent joints (e.g. flexing/extending the fifth metatarsal to establish the location of the cuboid-metatarsal joint).Figure 1

Bottom Line: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions.There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, PO 32 Brian Blatchford Building, Salford, M6 6PU UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions. Quality foot kinematic data from healthy feet will also assist the development of high quality and research based clinical models of foot biomechanics. To address gaps in the current literature we aimed to describe 3D foot kinematics using a 5 segment foot model in a population of 100 pain free individuals.

Methods: Kinematics of the leg, calcaneus, midfoot, medial and lateral forefoot and hallux were measured in 100 self reported healthy and pain free individuals during walking. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise foot movements. Contributions from different foot segments to the total motion in each plane were also derived to explore functional roles of different parts of the foot.

Results: Foot segments demonstrated greatest motion in the sagittal plane, but large ranges of movement in all planes. All foot segments demonstrated movement throughout gait, though least motion was observed between the midfoot and calcaneus. There was inconsistent evidence of movement coupling between joints. There were clear differences in motion data compared to foot segment models reported in the literature.

Conclusions: The data reveal the foot is a multiarticular structure, movements are complex, show incomplete evidence of coupling, and vary person to person. The data provide a useful reference data set against which future experimental data can be compared and may provide the basis for conceptual models of foot function based on data rather than anecdotal observations.

No MeSH data available.