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Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne effect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites.

Staniewicz L, Vaudey T, Degrandcourt C, Couty M, Gaboriaud F, Midgley P - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix.While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties.Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Scaling law relating the magnitude of the Payne effect with (a) the bulk filler volume fraction and (b) the median inter-particle spacing as measured by electron tomography.
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f5: Scaling law relating the magnitude of the Payne effect with (a) the bulk filler volume fraction and (b) the median inter-particle spacing as measured by electron tomography.

Mentions: Figure 5 shows how the magnitude of the Payne effect in our three samples, defined here as , where is the maximum value of G* (located at minimum strain) and is the minimum value of G* (located at maximum strain), varies with respect to both the bulk volume fraction (Fig. 5a) and the median inter-particle spacing (Fig. 5b) as determined from Equation 1 with A = 2.75. Previous work34 has observed a power law relationship between mechanical reinforcement (proportional to the Payne effect, which is a reduction in reinforcement behaviour) and volume fraction, so we assume a similar form and find that , or , which are comparable to the values obtained by Baeza et al34.


Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne effect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites.

Staniewicz L, Vaudey T, Degrandcourt C, Couty M, Gaboriaud F, Midgley P - Sci Rep (2014)

Scaling law relating the magnitude of the Payne effect with (a) the bulk filler volume fraction and (b) the median inter-particle spacing as measured by electron tomography.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260230&req=5

f5: Scaling law relating the magnitude of the Payne effect with (a) the bulk filler volume fraction and (b) the median inter-particle spacing as measured by electron tomography.
Mentions: Figure 5 shows how the magnitude of the Payne effect in our three samples, defined here as , where is the maximum value of G* (located at minimum strain) and is the minimum value of G* (located at maximum strain), varies with respect to both the bulk volume fraction (Fig. 5a) and the median inter-particle spacing (Fig. 5b) as determined from Equation 1 with A = 2.75. Previous work34 has observed a power law relationship between mechanical reinforcement (proportional to the Payne effect, which is a reduction in reinforcement behaviour) and volume fraction, so we assume a similar form and find that , or , which are comparable to the values obtained by Baeza et al34.

Bottom Line: The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix.While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties.Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus