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Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne effect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites.

Staniewicz L, Vaudey T, Degrandcourt C, Couty M, Gaboriaud F, Midgley P - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix.While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties.Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Cumulative percolation curves for all samples (legend indicates the volume fraction of silica measured in each individual pillar) and (b) the same curves, scaled horizontally such that the median of fitted cumulative log-normal distributions coincide.
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f2: (a) Cumulative percolation curves for all samples (legend indicates the volume fraction of silica measured in each individual pillar) and (b) the same curves, scaled horizontally such that the median of fitted cumulative log-normal distributions coincide.

Mentions: Once classified, the volume can be segmented and processed to obtain quantitative information. We measure a “cumulative percolation” parameter defined as a function of particle spacing (explained in more detail in Supplementary Information) which factors in both the progress towards forming a continuous network and the proximity of individual particles. Examples of such percolation curves are shown in Fig. 2a). A perfect close packing “crystal” of monodisperse spherical particles would result in a step function for a cumulative percolation; inhomogeneous particle distribution (clustering), polydisperse particle sizes and non-spherical particle shapes act to smooth the transition. It should be noted that if the particles have a fractal nature30, spurious results may occur when a particle is not fully enclosed within the reconstructed volume - the portion which reaches inside may be two (or more) components of a “fork” and present an inter-“particle” separation unrelated to the actual particle spacing.


Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne effect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites.

Staniewicz L, Vaudey T, Degrandcourt C, Couty M, Gaboriaud F, Midgley P - Sci Rep (2014)

(a) Cumulative percolation curves for all samples (legend indicates the volume fraction of silica measured in each individual pillar) and (b) the same curves, scaled horizontally such that the median of fitted cumulative log-normal distributions coincide.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260230&req=5

f2: (a) Cumulative percolation curves for all samples (legend indicates the volume fraction of silica measured in each individual pillar) and (b) the same curves, scaled horizontally such that the median of fitted cumulative log-normal distributions coincide.
Mentions: Once classified, the volume can be segmented and processed to obtain quantitative information. We measure a “cumulative percolation” parameter defined as a function of particle spacing (explained in more detail in Supplementary Information) which factors in both the progress towards forming a continuous network and the proximity of individual particles. Examples of such percolation curves are shown in Fig. 2a). A perfect close packing “crystal” of monodisperse spherical particles would result in a step function for a cumulative percolation; inhomogeneous particle distribution (clustering), polydisperse particle sizes and non-spherical particle shapes act to smooth the transition. It should be noted that if the particles have a fractal nature30, spurious results may occur when a particle is not fully enclosed within the reconstructed volume - the portion which reaches inside may be two (or more) components of a “fork” and present an inter-“particle” separation unrelated to the actual particle spacing.

Bottom Line: The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix.While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties.Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus