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Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne effect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites.

Staniewicz L, Vaudey T, Degrandcourt C, Couty M, Gaboriaud F, Midgley P - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix.While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties.Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) a surface render of the silica in one reconstructed pillar. This portion of the pillar contains 16.2% silica by volume, is 369 nm long and has a diameter increasing smoothly from 165 to 185 nm. Scale bar: 100 nm. (b) A magnified view of a single “aggregate”, highlighted in blue in (a). Scale bar: 20 nm. (c) a single silica aggregate before mixing imaged using bright-field TEM. Scale bar: 100 nm.
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f1: (a) a surface render of the silica in one reconstructed pillar. This portion of the pillar contains 16.2% silica by volume, is 369 nm long and has a diameter increasing smoothly from 165 to 185 nm. Scale bar: 100 nm. (b) A magnified view of a single “aggregate”, highlighted in blue in (a). Scale bar: 20 nm. (c) a single silica aggregate before mixing imaged using bright-field TEM. Scale bar: 100 nm.

Mentions: Figure 1a) is an example of the reconstructions obtained and shows the silica component of one pillar along with an example in Fig. 1b) of an individual aggregate, rendered using the UCSF Chimera software23. While the filler particles in this example appear very polydisperse and unevenly spaced, this may be an artefact of the pillar shape and the relatively small volume available for imaging within any individual pillar. The relatively large size of the silica aggregates compared to the pillar volume will lead to possible measurement errors. Because of this, we will only examine particle spacings, make no attempt to measure particle sizes and will only conduct direct comparisons between volumes of similar shape and size. A volume render of the same pillar prior to classification is shown in Supplementary Information.


Electron tomography provides a direct link between the Payne effect and the inter-particle spacing of rubber composites.

Staniewicz L, Vaudey T, Degrandcourt C, Couty M, Gaboriaud F, Midgley P - Sci Rep (2014)

(a) a surface render of the silica in one reconstructed pillar. This portion of the pillar contains 16.2% silica by volume, is 369 nm long and has a diameter increasing smoothly from 165 to 185 nm. Scale bar: 100 nm. (b) A magnified view of a single “aggregate”, highlighted in blue in (a). Scale bar: 20 nm. (c) a single silica aggregate before mixing imaged using bright-field TEM. Scale bar: 100 nm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260230&req=5

f1: (a) a surface render of the silica in one reconstructed pillar. This portion of the pillar contains 16.2% silica by volume, is 369 nm long and has a diameter increasing smoothly from 165 to 185 nm. Scale bar: 100 nm. (b) A magnified view of a single “aggregate”, highlighted in blue in (a). Scale bar: 20 nm. (c) a single silica aggregate before mixing imaged using bright-field TEM. Scale bar: 100 nm.
Mentions: Figure 1a) is an example of the reconstructions obtained and shows the silica component of one pillar along with an example in Fig. 1b) of an individual aggregate, rendered using the UCSF Chimera software23. While the filler particles in this example appear very polydisperse and unevenly spaced, this may be an artefact of the pillar shape and the relatively small volume available for imaging within any individual pillar. The relatively large size of the silica aggregates compared to the pillar volume will lead to possible measurement errors. Because of this, we will only examine particle spacings, make no attempt to measure particle sizes and will only conduct direct comparisons between volumes of similar shape and size. A volume render of the same pillar prior to classification is shown in Supplementary Information.

Bottom Line: The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix.While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties.Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge, CB3 0FS, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Rubber-filler composites are a key component in the manufacture of tyres. The filler provides mechanical reinforcement and additional wear resistance to the rubber, but it in turn introduces non-linear mechanical behaviour to the material which most likely arises from interactions between the filler particles, mediated by the rubber matrix. While various studies have been made on the bulk mechanical properties and of the filler network structure (both imaging and by simulations), there presently does not exist any work directly linking filler particle spacing and mechanical properties. Here we show that using STEM tomography, aided by a machine learning image analysis procedure, to measure silica particle spacings provides a direct link between the inter-particle spacing and the reduction in shear modulus as a function of strain (the Payne effect), measured using dynamic mechanical analysis. Simulations of filler network formation using attractive, repulsive and non-interacting potentials were processed using the same method and compared with the experimental data, with the net result being that an attractive inter-particle potential is the most accurate way of modelling styrene-butadiene rubber-silica composite formation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus