Limits...
Over-expression of TLR4-CD14, pro-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic markers and NEFAs in obese non-diabetic Mexicans.

De Loera-Rodriguez CO, Delgado-Rizo V, Alvarado-Navarro A, Agraz-Cibrian JM, Segura-Ortega JE, Fafutis-Morris M - J Inflamm (Lond) (2014)

Bottom Line: Adipose tissue contributes significantly to increase pro-inflammatory mediators whose cascade begins with the union of TLR4 to its microbial ligands (TLR: Toll Like Receptors).Adipose tissue used to be thought of as mere storage of fats and energy, but it has been revealed to be an important neuro-immune-endocrine organ.Immune cells, stimulated by NEFAs, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have a direct effect on oxidating radicals that directly target the release of noradrenalin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Guadalajara, Jal, México.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Obesity is the world's most important public health problem. Adipose tissue contributes significantly to increase pro-inflammatory mediators whose cascade begins with the union of TLR4 to its microbial ligands (TLR: Toll Like Receptors). It has been reported recently that NEFAs (Non-Esterified Fatty Acids) bind to this receptor as agonists. The purpose of our study was to determine the levels of expression of TLR4-CD14, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, the metabolic markers and the NEFAs in a group of adult, non-diabetic obese Mexicans.

Method: A group of 210 adult middle-class Mexican non-diabetic obese patients was evaluated: 105 normal weight individuals, and 105 non-diabetic obese. On both groups, the following was tested in each patient: TLR4-CD14 receptors on monocytes in peripheral blood, inflammatory profile, HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance), NEFAs and each individual's anthropometric profile.

Results: Obesity is strongly associated with the expression of TLR4 (77%, MFI (Mean Fluorescence Index) 7.70) and CD14 (86% MFI 1.61) with 66% double positives (p = 0.000). These figures contrast with those for the normal weight individuals that constituted the control group: TLR4 (70% MFI 6.41) and CD14 (84% MFI 1.25) with 59% double positives. As for cytokine concentration, non- diabetic obese individuals vs the normal weight/thin, the numbers were: IL-1β = 2.0 vs 2.5 pg/ml (p = NS), IL-6 = 36 vs 28 pg/ml (p = 0.030), IL-8 = 27 vs 27 pg/ml (p = NS), IL-10 = 8.4 vs 6.8 pg/ml (p = NS), TNF-α =31 vs 15 pg/ml (p = 0.000) respectively. Insulin levels were 12.1 vs 19.7 mcU/ml (p = 0.000) and the NEFAs were much higher in the obese vs normal weight/thin individuals (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: Adipose tissue used to be thought of as mere storage of fats and energy, but it has been revealed to be an important neuro-immune-endocrine organ. Immune cells, stimulated by NEFAs, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have a direct effect on oxidating radicals that directly target the release of noradrenalin. This in turn, reactivates the vicious cycle of low-grade chronic inflammation, as is now described in obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Determination of metabolic markers. The metabolic study reflected that in comparison to obese and lean individuals had significantly higher serum levels (*p <0,000) of HOMA-IR, basal NEFAs (mEq/L), basal glycemia (mg/dL) (see Table 1) and basal insulin (mcU/mL).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260202&req=5

Fig3: Determination of metabolic markers. The metabolic study reflected that in comparison to obese and lean individuals had significantly higher serum levels (*p <0,000) of HOMA-IR, basal NEFAs (mEq/L), basal glycemia (mg/dL) (see Table 1) and basal insulin (mcU/mL).

Mentions: Insulin levels, HOMA-IR and NEFA measurements are the markers we used to determine the association between obesity and the role of the inflammatory process. The concentration levels of these three markers have been significantly greater (p <0,000) in the obese than in persons of normal weight. Insulin 19,7 +/−13,2 mcU/mL vs 12,1+/− 3,4 mcU/mL, HOMA-IR 5.3 +/−3.7 vs 2.4+/−0.7 and NEFA 4,7 +/−4,7 mEq/L vs 0.21+/− 0.25 mEq/L, respectively (Figure 3).Figure 3


Over-expression of TLR4-CD14, pro-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic markers and NEFAs in obese non-diabetic Mexicans.

De Loera-Rodriguez CO, Delgado-Rizo V, Alvarado-Navarro A, Agraz-Cibrian JM, Segura-Ortega JE, Fafutis-Morris M - J Inflamm (Lond) (2014)

Determination of metabolic markers. The metabolic study reflected that in comparison to obese and lean individuals had significantly higher serum levels (*p <0,000) of HOMA-IR, basal NEFAs (mEq/L), basal glycemia (mg/dL) (see Table 1) and basal insulin (mcU/mL).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260202&req=5

Fig3: Determination of metabolic markers. The metabolic study reflected that in comparison to obese and lean individuals had significantly higher serum levels (*p <0,000) of HOMA-IR, basal NEFAs (mEq/L), basal glycemia (mg/dL) (see Table 1) and basal insulin (mcU/mL).
Mentions: Insulin levels, HOMA-IR and NEFA measurements are the markers we used to determine the association between obesity and the role of the inflammatory process. The concentration levels of these three markers have been significantly greater (p <0,000) in the obese than in persons of normal weight. Insulin 19,7 +/−13,2 mcU/mL vs 12,1+/− 3,4 mcU/mL, HOMA-IR 5.3 +/−3.7 vs 2.4+/−0.7 and NEFA 4,7 +/−4,7 mEq/L vs 0.21+/− 0.25 mEq/L, respectively (Figure 3).Figure 3

Bottom Line: Adipose tissue contributes significantly to increase pro-inflammatory mediators whose cascade begins with the union of TLR4 to its microbial ligands (TLR: Toll Like Receptors).Adipose tissue used to be thought of as mere storage of fats and energy, but it has been revealed to be an important neuro-immune-endocrine organ.Immune cells, stimulated by NEFAs, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have a direct effect on oxidating radicals that directly target the release of noradrenalin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Guadalajara, Jal, México.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Obesity is the world's most important public health problem. Adipose tissue contributes significantly to increase pro-inflammatory mediators whose cascade begins with the union of TLR4 to its microbial ligands (TLR: Toll Like Receptors). It has been reported recently that NEFAs (Non-Esterified Fatty Acids) bind to this receptor as agonists. The purpose of our study was to determine the levels of expression of TLR4-CD14, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, the metabolic markers and the NEFAs in a group of adult, non-diabetic obese Mexicans.

Method: A group of 210 adult middle-class Mexican non-diabetic obese patients was evaluated: 105 normal weight individuals, and 105 non-diabetic obese. On both groups, the following was tested in each patient: TLR4-CD14 receptors on monocytes in peripheral blood, inflammatory profile, HOMA-IR (Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance), NEFAs and each individual's anthropometric profile.

Results: Obesity is strongly associated with the expression of TLR4 (77%, MFI (Mean Fluorescence Index) 7.70) and CD14 (86% MFI 1.61) with 66% double positives (p = 0.000). These figures contrast with those for the normal weight individuals that constituted the control group: TLR4 (70% MFI 6.41) and CD14 (84% MFI 1.25) with 59% double positives. As for cytokine concentration, non- diabetic obese individuals vs the normal weight/thin, the numbers were: IL-1β = 2.0 vs 2.5 pg/ml (p = NS), IL-6 = 36 vs 28 pg/ml (p = 0.030), IL-8 = 27 vs 27 pg/ml (p = NS), IL-10 = 8.4 vs 6.8 pg/ml (p = NS), TNF-α =31 vs 15 pg/ml (p = 0.000) respectively. Insulin levels were 12.1 vs 19.7 mcU/ml (p = 0.000) and the NEFAs were much higher in the obese vs normal weight/thin individuals (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: Adipose tissue used to be thought of as mere storage of fats and energy, but it has been revealed to be an important neuro-immune-endocrine organ. Immune cells, stimulated by NEFAs, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have a direct effect on oxidating radicals that directly target the release of noradrenalin. This in turn, reactivates the vicious cycle of low-grade chronic inflammation, as is now described in obesity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus