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Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparative profiling of chemical structure of tachyzoites of Neospora caninum from locust-derived and original isolates using Raman spectroscopy.(A) Comparative Raman spectra of tachyzoites of N. caninum culture-derived (blue) and locust brain-derived isolates (green) in the region from 700 to 1,700 cm-1. (B) Principal component analysis score plots in the plane of principal components 2 vs. principal component 1 for samples tested. Each dot represents a chemical molecule and the dots are colored according to the biological group the sample belongs to. Blue dots indicate N. caninum culture-derived isolate and green dots indicate locust brain-derived isolate. Minor (green dots at the top), but non-significant differences were present between the chemical profile of each isolate. Raman spectra of locust-derived isolate are less scatter (i.e., less variation in their structures) compared to spectra of culture-derived isolate.
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fig-7: Comparative profiling of chemical structure of tachyzoites of Neospora caninum from locust-derived and original isolates using Raman spectroscopy.(A) Comparative Raman spectra of tachyzoites of N. caninum culture-derived (blue) and locust brain-derived isolates (green) in the region from 700 to 1,700 cm-1. (B) Principal component analysis score plots in the plane of principal components 2 vs. principal component 1 for samples tested. Each dot represents a chemical molecule and the dots are colored according to the biological group the sample belongs to. Blue dots indicate N. caninum culture-derived isolate and green dots indicate locust brain-derived isolate. Minor (green dots at the top), but non-significant differences were present between the chemical profile of each isolate. Raman spectra of locust-derived isolate are less scatter (i.e., less variation in their structures) compared to spectra of culture-derived isolate.

Mentions: It was important to find out if the passage of the parasite through the locust had induced any alteration in the phenotype of the parasite. Chemical profiling using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy technique (Fig. 6) and principle component analysis (Fig. 7) revealed minor, non-significant differences between the two N. caninum isolates. Locust-brain-derived N. caninum isolate was used to infect locusts to test their neuropathogenic capacity. In vivo passage in the locust’s brain did not result in alteration in neuropathogenicity. One of the locust-adapted isolates induced brain infection in 100% of five newly infected locusts, which had detectable parasite burdens in the brain at different time points PI as evidenced by PCR. But no further attempt was made to re-isolate the parasites from these locusts and use for infection again.


Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Comparative profiling of chemical structure of tachyzoites of Neospora caninum from locust-derived and original isolates using Raman spectroscopy.(A) Comparative Raman spectra of tachyzoites of N. caninum culture-derived (blue) and locust brain-derived isolates (green) in the region from 700 to 1,700 cm-1. (B) Principal component analysis score plots in the plane of principal components 2 vs. principal component 1 for samples tested. Each dot represents a chemical molecule and the dots are colored according to the biological group the sample belongs to. Blue dots indicate N. caninum culture-derived isolate and green dots indicate locust brain-derived isolate. Minor (green dots at the top), but non-significant differences were present between the chemical profile of each isolate. Raman spectra of locust-derived isolate are less scatter (i.e., less variation in their structures) compared to spectra of culture-derived isolate.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260130&req=5

fig-7: Comparative profiling of chemical structure of tachyzoites of Neospora caninum from locust-derived and original isolates using Raman spectroscopy.(A) Comparative Raman spectra of tachyzoites of N. caninum culture-derived (blue) and locust brain-derived isolates (green) in the region from 700 to 1,700 cm-1. (B) Principal component analysis score plots in the plane of principal components 2 vs. principal component 1 for samples tested. Each dot represents a chemical molecule and the dots are colored according to the biological group the sample belongs to. Blue dots indicate N. caninum culture-derived isolate and green dots indicate locust brain-derived isolate. Minor (green dots at the top), but non-significant differences were present between the chemical profile of each isolate. Raman spectra of locust-derived isolate are less scatter (i.e., less variation in their structures) compared to spectra of culture-derived isolate.
Mentions: It was important to find out if the passage of the parasite through the locust had induced any alteration in the phenotype of the parasite. Chemical profiling using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy technique (Fig. 6) and principle component analysis (Fig. 7) revealed minor, non-significant differences between the two N. caninum isolates. Locust-brain-derived N. caninum isolate was used to infect locusts to test their neuropathogenic capacity. In vivo passage in the locust’s brain did not result in alteration in neuropathogenicity. One of the locust-adapted isolates induced brain infection in 100% of five newly infected locusts, which had detectable parasite burdens in the brain at different time points PI as evidenced by PCR. But no further attempt was made to re-isolate the parasites from these locusts and use for infection again.

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus