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Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative micrographs of Neospora caninum-infected locust brains.Locusts were injected with 106N. caninum and their brains were dissected out at 5 days post-infection. Subsequently, the brains were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. N. caninum triggered inflammatory response (arrows) in the brain tissue of infected locusts (A). No parasite was detected in the brain (A) or in the fat body surrounding the brain of (B). Magnification ×400.
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fig-4: Representative micrographs of Neospora caninum-infected locust brains.Locusts were injected with 106N. caninum and their brains were dissected out at 5 days post-infection. Subsequently, the brains were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. N. caninum triggered inflammatory response (arrows) in the brain tissue of infected locusts (A). No parasite was detected in the brain (A) or in the fat body surrounding the brain of (B). Magnification ×400.

Mentions: Histologic examination of brain tissue from mock- and N. caninum-infected locusts demonstrated substantial changes in the brain of infected locusts. Even though the parasite was not observed in histological section there was accumulation of many inflammatory cells, located primarily in the white matter tracts of the brain of infected locusts, whereas no changes or immune response were detected in control locusts (Fig. 4). There was no significant difference of inflammatory loads observed between locusts’ brains from different infection groups. Given the significant mortality with 103 tachyzoites in group 1 it is interesting that surviving animals have normal body weight. Apart from the limited pathological changes that were detected in surviving locusts, there is no evidence to indicate that surviving locusts from this group were able to control the infection compared to those who died. However, this might be attributed to the variability in individual response of locusts to infection. The parasite has not been detected in any other organ of any locust examined.


Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Representative micrographs of Neospora caninum-infected locust brains.Locusts were injected with 106N. caninum and their brains were dissected out at 5 days post-infection. Subsequently, the brains were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. N. caninum triggered inflammatory response (arrows) in the brain tissue of infected locusts (A). No parasite was detected in the brain (A) or in the fat body surrounding the brain of (B). Magnification ×400.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260130&req=5

fig-4: Representative micrographs of Neospora caninum-infected locust brains.Locusts were injected with 106N. caninum and their brains were dissected out at 5 days post-infection. Subsequently, the brains were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. N. caninum triggered inflammatory response (arrows) in the brain tissue of infected locusts (A). No parasite was detected in the brain (A) or in the fat body surrounding the brain of (B). Magnification ×400.
Mentions: Histologic examination of brain tissue from mock- and N. caninum-infected locusts demonstrated substantial changes in the brain of infected locusts. Even though the parasite was not observed in histological section there was accumulation of many inflammatory cells, located primarily in the white matter tracts of the brain of infected locusts, whereas no changes or immune response were detected in control locusts (Fig. 4). There was no significant difference of inflammatory loads observed between locusts’ brains from different infection groups. Given the significant mortality with 103 tachyzoites in group 1 it is interesting that surviving animals have normal body weight. Apart from the limited pathological changes that were detected in surviving locusts, there is no evidence to indicate that surviving locusts from this group were able to control the infection compared to those who died. However, this might be attributed to the variability in individual response of locusts to infection. The parasite has not been detected in any other organ of any locust examined.

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus