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Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of Neospora caninum infection on locust fecal output.Besides the environmental control (E-control) group, an additional group of locusts were inoculated with media only and considered the non-infected control. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were infected as described in materials and methods. Fecal output per group was weighted daily for up to 7 days PI. Total fecal output was divided by the number of living locusts for every day. There was non-significant increase in fecal output one day after infection, followed by significant decrease until day 7 after infection, with p-value 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, and 0.03 for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Data was compared using paired t-test (with p-value <0.05 as significant). Results are presented as means from three independent experiments.
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fig-3: The effect of Neospora caninum infection on locust fecal output.Besides the environmental control (E-control) group, an additional group of locusts were inoculated with media only and considered the non-infected control. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were infected as described in materials and methods. Fecal output per group was weighted daily for up to 7 days PI. Total fecal output was divided by the number of living locusts for every day. There was non-significant increase in fecal output one day after infection, followed by significant decrease until day 7 after infection, with p-value 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, and 0.03 for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Data was compared using paired t-test (with p-value <0.05 as significant). Results are presented as means from three independent experiments.

Mentions: A slight increase in fecal output was detected in infected locusts 1 day PI, followed by progressive decrease in the subsequent days especially in locusts given the higher doses. But, a dose–response reduction in the fecal output was not detected (Fig. 3). No difference was detected in any of the above tested clinical parameters of infection between either control or infected male and female locusts (data not shown). However, there was some variability in the response of locusts, not gender-specific, from experiment to experiment.


Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

The effect of Neospora caninum infection on locust fecal output.Besides the environmental control (E-control) group, an additional group of locusts were inoculated with media only and considered the non-infected control. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were infected as described in materials and methods. Fecal output per group was weighted daily for up to 7 days PI. Total fecal output was divided by the number of living locusts for every day. There was non-significant increase in fecal output one day after infection, followed by significant decrease until day 7 after infection, with p-value 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, and 0.03 for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Data was compared using paired t-test (with p-value <0.05 as significant). Results are presented as means from three independent experiments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260130&req=5

fig-3: The effect of Neospora caninum infection on locust fecal output.Besides the environmental control (E-control) group, an additional group of locusts were inoculated with media only and considered the non-infected control. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were infected as described in materials and methods. Fecal output per group was weighted daily for up to 7 days PI. Total fecal output was divided by the number of living locusts for every day. There was non-significant increase in fecal output one day after infection, followed by significant decrease until day 7 after infection, with p-value 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, and 0.03 for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Data was compared using paired t-test (with p-value <0.05 as significant). Results are presented as means from three independent experiments.
Mentions: A slight increase in fecal output was detected in infected locusts 1 day PI, followed by progressive decrease in the subsequent days especially in locusts given the higher doses. But, a dose–response reduction in the fecal output was not detected (Fig. 3). No difference was detected in any of the above tested clinical parameters of infection between either control or infected male and female locusts (data not shown). However, there was some variability in the response of locusts, not gender-specific, from experiment to experiment.

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus