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Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relative body weight (BW) of Neospora caninum-infected locusts compared to controls at different time points after infection.Shown are means ± SEM of percent body weight change compared with initial body weight for surviving locusts at each time point. There was no significant change in the BW of control locusts and locusts in group 1 (infected with 103 tachyzoites) along the course of the experiment, but in groups 2 and 4, infected with 104 and 106, respectively, there was significant loss in weight beginning by 2 day after infection (p = 0.0024 and 0.0012, respectively). In group 3 infected with 105 the weight loss began by 3 day after infection (p < 0.0001). Not all locusts completed the course of the experiment due to associated mortality. Data was compared using paired t-test (p-value < 0.05).
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fig-2: Relative body weight (BW) of Neospora caninum-infected locusts compared to controls at different time points after infection.Shown are means ± SEM of percent body weight change compared with initial body weight for surviving locusts at each time point. There was no significant change in the BW of control locusts and locusts in group 1 (infected with 103 tachyzoites) along the course of the experiment, but in groups 2 and 4, infected with 104 and 106, respectively, there was significant loss in weight beginning by 2 day after infection (p = 0.0024 and 0.0012, respectively). In group 3 infected with 105 the weight loss began by 3 day after infection (p < 0.0001). Not all locusts completed the course of the experiment due to associated mortality. Data was compared using paired t-test (p-value < 0.05).

Mentions: Infection with N. caninum did not cause a remarkable reduction in the body weight (Fig. 2). However, the distribution of data over the experiment shows that body weights decrease gradually in infected groups. At the lowest parasite challenge (G1 infected with 103 tachyzoites), the locusts did not gain or lose weight, and there was no significant difference between locusts from the sham-infected or environmental groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference in weight change between control locusts and N. caninum-infected locusts in the other groups (G2, p = 0.0024; G3, p < 0.0001; G4, p = 0.0012). The calculation of the average body weight of each group could not be performed beyond day 15 PI because only a few locusts were left in infected groups, which precluded direct quantitative comparison between different groups.


Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Relative body weight (BW) of Neospora caninum-infected locusts compared to controls at different time points after infection.Shown are means ± SEM of percent body weight change compared with initial body weight for surviving locusts at each time point. There was no significant change in the BW of control locusts and locusts in group 1 (infected with 103 tachyzoites) along the course of the experiment, but in groups 2 and 4, infected with 104 and 106, respectively, there was significant loss in weight beginning by 2 day after infection (p = 0.0024 and 0.0012, respectively). In group 3 infected with 105 the weight loss began by 3 day after infection (p < 0.0001). Not all locusts completed the course of the experiment due to associated mortality. Data was compared using paired t-test (p-value < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260130&req=5

fig-2: Relative body weight (BW) of Neospora caninum-infected locusts compared to controls at different time points after infection.Shown are means ± SEM of percent body weight change compared with initial body weight for surviving locusts at each time point. There was no significant change in the BW of control locusts and locusts in group 1 (infected with 103 tachyzoites) along the course of the experiment, but in groups 2 and 4, infected with 104 and 106, respectively, there was significant loss in weight beginning by 2 day after infection (p = 0.0024 and 0.0012, respectively). In group 3 infected with 105 the weight loss began by 3 day after infection (p < 0.0001). Not all locusts completed the course of the experiment due to associated mortality. Data was compared using paired t-test (p-value < 0.05).
Mentions: Infection with N. caninum did not cause a remarkable reduction in the body weight (Fig. 2). However, the distribution of data over the experiment shows that body weights decrease gradually in infected groups. At the lowest parasite challenge (G1 infected with 103 tachyzoites), the locusts did not gain or lose weight, and there was no significant difference between locusts from the sham-infected or environmental groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference in weight change between control locusts and N. caninum-infected locusts in the other groups (G2, p = 0.0024; G3, p < 0.0001; G4, p = 0.0012). The calculation of the average body weight of each group could not be performed beyond day 15 PI because only a few locusts were left in infected groups, which precluded direct quantitative comparison between different groups.

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus