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Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Survival of locusts given various doses of Neospora caninum tachyzoites by the intra-hemocoel route.Groups (G1 to G4) of locusts (n = 10) were administered doses of N. caninum of 103 (G1), 104 (G2), 105 (G3), and 106 (G4) per locust. Control locusts were sham-inoculated with RPMI cultured medium. An environmental control group (e-group) of non-infected locusts incubated under the same conditions as other groups was also included. Survival was monitored daily after infection. Results represent average survival curve based on three independent experiments. Control vs. G1 (p = 0.0008); control vs. G2 (p = 0.0007); control vs. G3 (p = 0.0004); control vs. G4 (p = 0.0047). Locusts inoculated with 10 or 100 tachyzoites did not exhibit any signs of sickness or mortality (data not shown).
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fig-1: Survival of locusts given various doses of Neospora caninum tachyzoites by the intra-hemocoel route.Groups (G1 to G4) of locusts (n = 10) were administered doses of N. caninum of 103 (G1), 104 (G2), 105 (G3), and 106 (G4) per locust. Control locusts were sham-inoculated with RPMI cultured medium. An environmental control group (e-group) of non-infected locusts incubated under the same conditions as other groups was also included. Survival was monitored daily after infection. Results represent average survival curve based on three independent experiments. Control vs. G1 (p = 0.0008); control vs. G2 (p = 0.0007); control vs. G3 (p = 0.0004); control vs. G4 (p = 0.0047). Locusts inoculated with 10 or 100 tachyzoites did not exhibit any signs of sickness or mortality (data not shown).

Mentions: Locusts died gradually as the infection progressed over the course of the experiment which lasted up to 27 days PI. Locusts infected with larger number of N. caninum tachyzoites showed less survival time, where all locusts in G1, G2, G3 and G4 died by day 25, 23, 21 and 20 PI, respectively (Fig. 1). Compared with control locusts, locusts receiving N. caninum infection appeared to have statistically significant higher mortality [control vs. (G1, p = 0.0008), (G2; p = 0.0007), (G3; p = 0.0004), or (G4; p = 0.0047)]. The mortality rate didn’t follow a dose-dependent manner, despite the increase in inoculation dose. Two locusts from the negative (uninfected) control group and one locust from the environmental control group had died during the course of the experiment, but their death was not due to infection with N. caninum based on a negative PCR result for brains of those three locusts.


Susceptibility to experimental infection of the invertebrate locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) with the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum.

Alkurashi MM, May ST, Kong K, Bacardit J, Haig D, Elsheikha HM - PeerJ (2014)

Survival of locusts given various doses of Neospora caninum tachyzoites by the intra-hemocoel route.Groups (G1 to G4) of locusts (n = 10) were administered doses of N. caninum of 103 (G1), 104 (G2), 105 (G3), and 106 (G4) per locust. Control locusts were sham-inoculated with RPMI cultured medium. An environmental control group (e-group) of non-infected locusts incubated under the same conditions as other groups was also included. Survival was monitored daily after infection. Results represent average survival curve based on three independent experiments. Control vs. G1 (p = 0.0008); control vs. G2 (p = 0.0007); control vs. G3 (p = 0.0004); control vs. G4 (p = 0.0047). Locusts inoculated with 10 or 100 tachyzoites did not exhibit any signs of sickness or mortality (data not shown).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4260130&req=5

fig-1: Survival of locusts given various doses of Neospora caninum tachyzoites by the intra-hemocoel route.Groups (G1 to G4) of locusts (n = 10) were administered doses of N. caninum of 103 (G1), 104 (G2), 105 (G3), and 106 (G4) per locust. Control locusts were sham-inoculated with RPMI cultured medium. An environmental control group (e-group) of non-infected locusts incubated under the same conditions as other groups was also included. Survival was monitored daily after infection. Results represent average survival curve based on three independent experiments. Control vs. G1 (p = 0.0008); control vs. G2 (p = 0.0007); control vs. G3 (p = 0.0004); control vs. G4 (p = 0.0047). Locusts inoculated with 10 or 100 tachyzoites did not exhibit any signs of sickness or mortality (data not shown).
Mentions: Locusts died gradually as the infection progressed over the course of the experiment which lasted up to 27 days PI. Locusts infected with larger number of N. caninum tachyzoites showed less survival time, where all locusts in G1, G2, G3 and G4 died by day 25, 23, 21 and 20 PI, respectively (Fig. 1). Compared with control locusts, locusts receiving N. caninum infection appeared to have statistically significant higher mortality [control vs. (G1, p = 0.0008), (G2; p = 0.0007), (G3; p = 0.0004), or (G4; p = 0.0047)]. The mortality rate didn’t follow a dose-dependent manner, despite the increase in inoculation dose. Two locusts from the negative (uninfected) control group and one locust from the environmental control group had died during the course of the experiment, but their death was not due to infection with N. caninum based on a negative PCR result for brains of those three locusts.

Bottom Line: Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts.Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites.Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham , Sutton Bonington Campus, Leicestershire , UK ; Animal Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Neuropathogenesis is a feature of Neospora caninum infection. In order to explore this in the absence of acquired host immunity to the parasite, we have tested infection in locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). We show for the first time that locusts are permissive to intra-hemocoel infection with N. caninum tachyzoites. This was characterized by alteration in body weight, fecal output, hemoparasitemia, and sickness-related behavior. Infected locusts exhibited progressive signs of sickness leading to mortality. Also, N. caninum showed neuropathogenic affinity, induced histological changes in the brain and was able to replicate in the brain of infected locusts. Fatty acid (FA) profiling analysis of the brains by gas chromatography and multi-variate prediction models discriminated with high accuracy (98%) between the FA profiles of the infected and control locusts. DNA microarray gene expression profiling distinguished infected from control S. gregaria brain tissues on the basis of distinct differentially-expressed genes. These data indicate that locusts are permissible to infection with N. caninum and that the parasite retains its tropism for neural tissues in the invertebrate host. Locusts may facilitate preclinical testing of interventional strategies to inhibit the growth of N. caninum tachyzoites. Further studies on how N. caninum brings about changes in locust brain tissue are now warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus