Carbohydrate recognition in the immune system: contributions of neoglycolipid-based microarrays to carbohydrate ligand discovery.
Bottom Line: The pinpointing and characterizing of oligosaccharide ligands within glycomes has been one of the most challenging aspects of molecular cell biology, as oligosaccharides cannot be cloned and are generally available in limited amounts.This overview recounts the background to the development of a microarray system that is poised for surveying proteomes for carbohydrate-binding activities and glycomes for assigning the oligosaccharide ligands.Particularly highlighted are sulfo-oligosaccharide and gluco-oligosaccharide recognition systems elucidated using microarrays.
Affiliation: The Glycosciences Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. email@example.comShow MeSH
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Mentions: An example of the power of the NGL technology for pinpointing ligands within glycomes is the discovery of sulphated Lewisa and sulphated Lewisx as ligands for E-selectin within the highly heterogeneous O-glycome of an epithelial mucin17 (Fig. 1). Other contributions (Fig. S3) included elucidations of differentiation antigens: the neural induction antigen L5 (Ref. 18) and the scrapie lesion antigen 10E4 (Ref. 19), and application of the technology in bacterial adhesion studies.20 The hitherto unknown O-mannosyl glycans were shown to be the sole O-glycan carriers of the HNK-1 antigen in the brain21 and to constitute about 30% of O-glycans in the brain.22 We have reviewed elsewhere the assignments of ligands for endogenous carbohydrate-binding proteins that are receptors of the immune system, enabled by the NGL technology17,23–39 they are also given in (Fig. S3). A remarkable cooperativity with effective display of the two ligands of P-selectin: sialyl-Lex and sulfotyrosine in lipid-linked form on liposomes was also demonstrated.40
Affiliation: The Glycosciences Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org