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Changes in expression of aquaporin-4 and aquaporin-9 in optic nerve after crushing in rats.

Suzuki H, Oku H, Horie T, Morishita S, Tonari M, Oku K, Okubo A, Kida T, Mimura M, Fukumoto M, Kojima S, Takai S, Ikeda T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The results showed that the expression of AQP4 was increased on day 1 but the level was significantly lower than that in the sham group on days 4 and 7 (P<0.05).The expression of AQP4 and GFAP was reduced at the crushed site where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present.The presence of AQP9-positive astrocytes at the crushed site may counteract the metabolic damage but this change did not fully compensate for the barrier function defect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 in the optic nerve after it is crushed. The left optic nerves of rats were either crushed (crushed group) or sham operated (sham group), and they were excised before, and at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days later. Four optic nerves were pooled for each time point in both groups. The expression of AQP4 and AQP9 was determined by western blot analyses. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the spatial expression of AQP4, AQP9, and GFAP in the optic nerve. Optic nerve edema was determined by measuring the water content in the optic nerve. The barrier function of the optic nerve vessels was determined by the extravasated Evans blue dye on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the expression of AQP4 was increased on day 1 but the level was significantly lower than that in the sham group on days 4 and 7 (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression of AQP9 gradually increased, and the level was significantly higher than that in the sham group on days 7 and 14 (P<0.05, Tukey-Kramer). The down-regulation of AQP4 was associated with crush-induced optic nerve edema, and the water content of the nerve was significantly increased by 4.3% in the crushed optic nerve from that of the untouched fellow nerve on day 7. The expression of AQP4 and GFAP was reduced at the crushed site where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The barrier function was impaired at the crushed site on days 7 and 14, restrictedly where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The presence of AQP9-positive astrocytes at the crushed site may counteract the metabolic damage but this change did not fully compensate for the barrier function defect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Immunohistochemistry for CD68 in the optic nerve.There is a cellular accumulation indicated by DAPI at the crushed sites of the optic nerve. Some of the cells are positively stained with CD68 suggesting that there is a recruitment of microglia/macrophages to the crushed sites. Bar  = 100 µm.
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pone-0114694-g004: Immunohistochemistry for CD68 in the optic nerve.There is a cellular accumulation indicated by DAPI at the crushed sites of the optic nerve. Some of the cells are positively stained with CD68 suggesting that there is a recruitment of microglia/macrophages to the crushed sites. Bar  = 100 µm.

Mentions: Representative photomicrographs of the changes in the expression of AQP4, AQP9, and GFAP after crushing the optic nerves are shown in Figure 3. Changes in the expression of CD68, a constitutive maker of microglia/macrophages are shown in Figure 4. Immunoreactivity to AQP4 was intensified along the crush-induced cracks on day 1 (Figure 3A), however cellular infiltration was not detected on day 1 (Figure 4). There was an accumulation of CD68 cells at the crushed site on days 4, 7, and 14 (Figure 4). Along with these changes, the immunoreactivity to GFAP was decreased on day 4 at the crushed site. The degree of immunoreactivity to AQP4 changed in a similar manner as that of GFAP. Thus, the immunoreactivity to AQP4 and GFAP became weaker at the crushed site than at the areas surrounding the lesion on days 4, 7, and 14 (Figure 3A). On the other hand, the immunoreactivity to AQP9 increased at the crushed site where immunoreactivity to GFAP was weak on day 4 and thereafter (Figure 3B).


Changes in expression of aquaporin-4 and aquaporin-9 in optic nerve after crushing in rats.

Suzuki H, Oku H, Horie T, Morishita S, Tonari M, Oku K, Okubo A, Kida T, Mimura M, Fukumoto M, Kojima S, Takai S, Ikeda T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Immunohistochemistry for CD68 in the optic nerve.There is a cellular accumulation indicated by DAPI at the crushed sites of the optic nerve. Some of the cells are positively stained with CD68 suggesting that there is a recruitment of microglia/macrophages to the crushed sites. Bar  = 100 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4257723&req=5

pone-0114694-g004: Immunohistochemistry for CD68 in the optic nerve.There is a cellular accumulation indicated by DAPI at the crushed sites of the optic nerve. Some of the cells are positively stained with CD68 suggesting that there is a recruitment of microglia/macrophages to the crushed sites. Bar  = 100 µm.
Mentions: Representative photomicrographs of the changes in the expression of AQP4, AQP9, and GFAP after crushing the optic nerves are shown in Figure 3. Changes in the expression of CD68, a constitutive maker of microglia/macrophages are shown in Figure 4. Immunoreactivity to AQP4 was intensified along the crush-induced cracks on day 1 (Figure 3A), however cellular infiltration was not detected on day 1 (Figure 4). There was an accumulation of CD68 cells at the crushed site on days 4, 7, and 14 (Figure 4). Along with these changes, the immunoreactivity to GFAP was decreased on day 4 at the crushed site. The degree of immunoreactivity to AQP4 changed in a similar manner as that of GFAP. Thus, the immunoreactivity to AQP4 and GFAP became weaker at the crushed site than at the areas surrounding the lesion on days 4, 7, and 14 (Figure 3A). On the other hand, the immunoreactivity to AQP9 increased at the crushed site where immunoreactivity to GFAP was weak on day 4 and thereafter (Figure 3B).

Bottom Line: The results showed that the expression of AQP4 was increased on day 1 but the level was significantly lower than that in the sham group on days 4 and 7 (P<0.05).The expression of AQP4 and GFAP was reduced at the crushed site where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present.The presence of AQP9-positive astrocytes at the crushed site may counteract the metabolic damage but this change did not fully compensate for the barrier function defect.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Osaka, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine the temporal and spatial changes in the expression of AQP4 and AQP9 in the optic nerve after it is crushed. The left optic nerves of rats were either crushed (crushed group) or sham operated (sham group), and they were excised before, and at 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days later. Four optic nerves were pooled for each time point in both groups. The expression of AQP4 and AQP9 was determined by western blot analyses. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the spatial expression of AQP4, AQP9, and GFAP in the optic nerve. Optic nerve edema was determined by measuring the water content in the optic nerve. The barrier function of the optic nerve vessels was determined by the extravasated Evans blue dye on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the expression of AQP4 was increased on day 1 but the level was significantly lower than that in the sham group on days 4 and 7 (P<0.05). In contrast, the expression of AQP9 gradually increased, and the level was significantly higher than that in the sham group on days 7 and 14 (P<0.05, Tukey-Kramer). The down-regulation of AQP4 was associated with crush-induced optic nerve edema, and the water content of the nerve was significantly increased by 4.3% in the crushed optic nerve from that of the untouched fellow nerve on day 7. The expression of AQP4 and GFAP was reduced at the crushed site where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The barrier function was impaired at the crushed site on days 7 and 14, restrictedly where AQP4-negative and AQP9-positive astrocytes were present. The presence of AQP9-positive astrocytes at the crushed site may counteract the metabolic damage but this change did not fully compensate for the barrier function defect.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus