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Cervico-vaginal immunoglobulin G levels increase post-ovulation independently of neutrophils.

Schaefer K, Brown N, Kaye PM, Lacey CJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often higher in females than in males.Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist.An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G in cervico-vaginal secretions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often higher in females than in males. Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist. An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G in cervico-vaginal secretions. We show here that in the mouse, IgG accumulation was enhanced approximately 5-fold post-ovulation, and was accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the FRT. To determine whether these two events were causally related, we performed short-term neutrophil depletion experiments at individual stages throughout the estrous cycle. Our results demonstrate that neutrophils were not necessary for cycle-dependent tissue remodeling and cycle progression and that cycle-dependent IgG accumulation occurred independent of neutrophils. We thus conclude that neutrophil influx and IgG accumulation are independent events that occur in the FRT during the reproductive cycle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tissue changes in the FRT during the estrous cycle of the mouse.Vaginal smears were taken from naïve virgin C57BL/6 female mice (8–12 weeks old) over the course of one estrous cycle and used for determination of cycle stage. Mice were killed at PE (A), E (B), ME (C) and DE (D) and tissue sections of vagina were cut. Vaginal smears (top panel) and tissue sections (bottom panel) were stained with H&E. The insets in the top panel show typical cell types found in vaginal smears of each cycle stage. The inset in the bottom panel shows neutrophils present in vaginal epithelium. Representative images from conventional cycle stage assessments are shown. Top panel, 100× magnification; bottom panel, 400× magnification.
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pone-0114824-g001: Tissue changes in the FRT during the estrous cycle of the mouse.Vaginal smears were taken from naïve virgin C57BL/6 female mice (8–12 weeks old) over the course of one estrous cycle and used for determination of cycle stage. Mice were killed at PE (A), E (B), ME (C) and DE (D) and tissue sections of vagina were cut. Vaginal smears (top panel) and tissue sections (bottom panel) were stained with H&E. The insets in the top panel show typical cell types found in vaginal smears of each cycle stage. The inset in the bottom panel shows neutrophils present in vaginal epithelium. Representative images from conventional cycle stage assessments are shown. Top panel, 100× magnification; bottom panel, 400× magnification.

Mentions: Estrous cycle stages in naïve virgin 8–12 week-old female C57BL/6 mice were determined from vaginal smears and frozen vaginal tissue sections stained with H&E (Figure 1). The murine estrous cycle has four stages; proestrus (PE), estrus (E), metestrus (ME) and diestrus (DE), and one cycle is completed within 4–5 days [38]. Importantly, E is the time during which ovulation occurs (high serum estrogen levels) and DE is the cycle stage during which serum progesterone levels peak [45]. Three dominant cell types can be found in vaginal smears of the mouse, namely cornified epithelial cells (lacking a nucleus), nucleated epithelial cells and leukocytes (in particular neutrophils), and cycle stage is determined by the relative abundance of these cell types in vaginal smears. PE smears consisted of round, nucleated epithelial cells mixed with cornified epithelial cells (Figure 1A, top panel) which make up the outermost layer of the vaginal epithelium (Figure 1A, bottom panel). E smears consisted entirely of large cornified cells (Figure 1B, top panel). The epithelial layer was the thickest during this cycle stage (Figure 1B, bottom panel). ME smears contained a large number of tightly packed neutrophils (defined by their multilobulated nuclei), which were often attached as cell clumps to epithelial cells (Figure 1C, top panel) and which were present within vaginal epithelium (Figure 1B, bottom panel). DE smears consisted mainly of dispersed neutrophils mixed with nucleated epithelial cells. No cornified cells were present in vaginal smears during this cycle stage (Figure 1D, top panel). The vaginal epithelium was the thinnest during DE (Figure 1D, bottom panel).


Cervico-vaginal immunoglobulin G levels increase post-ovulation independently of neutrophils.

Schaefer K, Brown N, Kaye PM, Lacey CJ - PLoS ONE (2014)

Tissue changes in the FRT during the estrous cycle of the mouse.Vaginal smears were taken from naïve virgin C57BL/6 female mice (8–12 weeks old) over the course of one estrous cycle and used for determination of cycle stage. Mice were killed at PE (A), E (B), ME (C) and DE (D) and tissue sections of vagina were cut. Vaginal smears (top panel) and tissue sections (bottom panel) were stained with H&E. The insets in the top panel show typical cell types found in vaginal smears of each cycle stage. The inset in the bottom panel shows neutrophils present in vaginal epithelium. Representative images from conventional cycle stage assessments are shown. Top panel, 100× magnification; bottom panel, 400× magnification.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4257712&req=5

pone-0114824-g001: Tissue changes in the FRT during the estrous cycle of the mouse.Vaginal smears were taken from naïve virgin C57BL/6 female mice (8–12 weeks old) over the course of one estrous cycle and used for determination of cycle stage. Mice were killed at PE (A), E (B), ME (C) and DE (D) and tissue sections of vagina were cut. Vaginal smears (top panel) and tissue sections (bottom panel) were stained with H&E. The insets in the top panel show typical cell types found in vaginal smears of each cycle stage. The inset in the bottom panel shows neutrophils present in vaginal epithelium. Representative images from conventional cycle stage assessments are shown. Top panel, 100× magnification; bottom panel, 400× magnification.
Mentions: Estrous cycle stages in naïve virgin 8–12 week-old female C57BL/6 mice were determined from vaginal smears and frozen vaginal tissue sections stained with H&E (Figure 1). The murine estrous cycle has four stages; proestrus (PE), estrus (E), metestrus (ME) and diestrus (DE), and one cycle is completed within 4–5 days [38]. Importantly, E is the time during which ovulation occurs (high serum estrogen levels) and DE is the cycle stage during which serum progesterone levels peak [45]. Three dominant cell types can be found in vaginal smears of the mouse, namely cornified epithelial cells (lacking a nucleus), nucleated epithelial cells and leukocytes (in particular neutrophils), and cycle stage is determined by the relative abundance of these cell types in vaginal smears. PE smears consisted of round, nucleated epithelial cells mixed with cornified epithelial cells (Figure 1A, top panel) which make up the outermost layer of the vaginal epithelium (Figure 1A, bottom panel). E smears consisted entirely of large cornified cells (Figure 1B, top panel). The epithelial layer was the thickest during this cycle stage (Figure 1B, bottom panel). ME smears contained a large number of tightly packed neutrophils (defined by their multilobulated nuclei), which were often attached as cell clumps to epithelial cells (Figure 1C, top panel) and which were present within vaginal epithelium (Figure 1B, bottom panel). DE smears consisted mainly of dispersed neutrophils mixed with nucleated epithelial cells. No cornified cells were present in vaginal smears during this cycle stage (Figure 1D, top panel). The vaginal epithelium was the thinnest during DE (Figure 1D, bottom panel).

Bottom Line: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often higher in females than in males.Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist.An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G in cervico-vaginal secretions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is often higher in females than in males. Although the reproductive cycle profoundly modulates local immunity in the female reproductive tract (FRT) system, significant gaps in our knowledge of the immunobiology of the FRT still exist. An intriguing and frequently observed characteristic of the FRT is the predominant presence of immunoglobulin (Ig) G in cervico-vaginal secretions. We show here that in the mouse, IgG accumulation was enhanced approximately 5-fold post-ovulation, and was accompanied by an influx of neutrophils into the FRT. To determine whether these two events were causally related, we performed short-term neutrophil depletion experiments at individual stages throughout the estrous cycle. Our results demonstrate that neutrophils were not necessary for cycle-dependent tissue remodeling and cycle progression and that cycle-dependent IgG accumulation occurred independent of neutrophils. We thus conclude that neutrophil influx and IgG accumulation are independent events that occur in the FRT during the reproductive cycle.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus