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Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

Lavilla Lerma L, Benomar N, Knapp CW, Correa Galeote D, Gálvez A, Abriouel H - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant.Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed.Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Área de Microbiología, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071, Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

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Percentage of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam total resistances.
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pone-0114252-g006: Percentage of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam total resistances.

Mentions: Analyses of resistance genes provide quantitative information for risk assessment in each slaughterhouse zone and also meat products. Analysis of the sum of measured tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetO and tetQ), sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII and sulIII) and beta-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM and blaCTX) in different slaughterhouse zones and meat products showed that tetracycline genes were most prevalent in goat and lamb slaughterhouse zones and meat products (about two and ten orders of magnitude higher than sulfonamide and beta-lactamase groups, respectively) (Fig. 6). This data is not surprising since tetracycline genes are often spread over many promiscuous conjugative genetic elements [29], [35], thus detection of tet genes was possible in a diversity of environmental bacteria (in soil, sludge, wastewater, river water, and agriculture) [36]–[40] and foods [41]. The most important reservoir of tetracycline genes were CR, SR and MP, while sulfonamide and beta lactamase groups were mainly observed in SR (Fig. 6).


Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

Lavilla Lerma L, Benomar N, Knapp CW, Correa Galeote D, Gálvez A, Abriouel H - PLoS ONE (2014)

Percentage of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam total resistances.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4257697&req=5

pone-0114252-g006: Percentage of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam total resistances.
Mentions: Analyses of resistance genes provide quantitative information for risk assessment in each slaughterhouse zone and also meat products. Analysis of the sum of measured tetracycline resistance genes (tetA, tetB, tetO and tetQ), sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII and sulIII) and beta-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM and blaCTX) in different slaughterhouse zones and meat products showed that tetracycline genes were most prevalent in goat and lamb slaughterhouse zones and meat products (about two and ten orders of magnitude higher than sulfonamide and beta-lactamase groups, respectively) (Fig. 6). This data is not surprising since tetracycline genes are often spread over many promiscuous conjugative genetic elements [29], [35], thus detection of tet genes was possible in a diversity of environmental bacteria (in soil, sludge, wastewater, river water, and agriculture) [36]–[40] and foods [41]. The most important reservoir of tetracycline genes were CR, SR and MP, while sulfonamide and beta lactamase groups were mainly observed in SR (Fig. 6).

Bottom Line: Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant.Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed.Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Área de Microbiología, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071, Jaén, Spain.

ABSTRACT
The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus