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Ethnic variability in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years: is ethnic-specific calibration of bioelectrical impedance required?

Lee S, Bountziouka V, Lum S, Stocks J, Bonner R, Naik M, Fothergill H, Wells JC - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities.Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight).Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Respiratory, Critical Care and Anaesthesia Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.

Methods: In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.

Results: In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight).

Conclusion: Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Ethnic differences in anthropometric measurements in boys.Dots represent mean values, error bars represent standard error of the mean. Black African/Caribbean boys generally had higher mean values of all circumferences and standing height, but lower sitting/standing height ratio, at each age group as compared to White and South Asian children. An increasing trend for ethnic differences in body circumferences is evident, especially after 9 years of age. Despite its heterogeneity, the ‘Other’ group tend to track White and South Asian group more closely than Black African/Caribbean group. Similar pattern was observed in girls (Figure S3). Due to relatively small sample size >10 years old (n = 12) the estimates may be biased therefore the trend lines from 10 to 11 years old were replaced by dotted lines.
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pone-0113883-g002: Ethnic differences in anthropometric measurements in boys.Dots represent mean values, error bars represent standard error of the mean. Black African/Caribbean boys generally had higher mean values of all circumferences and standing height, but lower sitting/standing height ratio, at each age group as compared to White and South Asian children. An increasing trend for ethnic differences in body circumferences is evident, especially after 9 years of age. Despite its heterogeneity, the ‘Other’ group tend to track White and South Asian group more closely than Black African/Caribbean group. Similar pattern was observed in girls (Figure S3). Due to relatively small sample size >10 years old (n = 12) the estimates may be biased therefore the trend lines from 10 to 11 years old were replaced by dotted lines.

Mentions: There were marked ethnic differences in body size, these differences being similar in both populations (Table 1). After adjusting for age and sex, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly heavier, taller and with greater BMI than those from other ethnic groups. On average, Black African/Caribbean children had the largest body girths (MUAC, calf and waist) across all age groups, but the lowest sitting/standing height ratio when compared to other ethnicities, indicating relatively longer legs (Figure 2 and Figure S3). With the exception of height and sitting/standing height ratio, ethnic differences in body size increased after 9 years of age, particularly between Black African/Caribbean and South Asian children. The number of children in each age group is given in Table S1.


Ethnic variability in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years: is ethnic-specific calibration of bioelectrical impedance required?

Lee S, Bountziouka V, Lum S, Stocks J, Bonner R, Naik M, Fothergill H, Wells JC - PLoS ONE (2014)

Ethnic differences in anthropometric measurements in boys.Dots represent mean values, error bars represent standard error of the mean. Black African/Caribbean boys generally had higher mean values of all circumferences and standing height, but lower sitting/standing height ratio, at each age group as compared to White and South Asian children. An increasing trend for ethnic differences in body circumferences is evident, especially after 9 years of age. Despite its heterogeneity, the ‘Other’ group tend to track White and South Asian group more closely than Black African/Caribbean group. Similar pattern was observed in girls (Figure S3). Due to relatively small sample size >10 years old (n = 12) the estimates may be biased therefore the trend lines from 10 to 11 years old were replaced by dotted lines.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4257615&req=5

pone-0113883-g002: Ethnic differences in anthropometric measurements in boys.Dots represent mean values, error bars represent standard error of the mean. Black African/Caribbean boys generally had higher mean values of all circumferences and standing height, but lower sitting/standing height ratio, at each age group as compared to White and South Asian children. An increasing trend for ethnic differences in body circumferences is evident, especially after 9 years of age. Despite its heterogeneity, the ‘Other’ group tend to track White and South Asian group more closely than Black African/Caribbean group. Similar pattern was observed in girls (Figure S3). Due to relatively small sample size >10 years old (n = 12) the estimates may be biased therefore the trend lines from 10 to 11 years old were replaced by dotted lines.
Mentions: There were marked ethnic differences in body size, these differences being similar in both populations (Table 1). After adjusting for age and sex, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly heavier, taller and with greater BMI than those from other ethnic groups. On average, Black African/Caribbean children had the largest body girths (MUAC, calf and waist) across all age groups, but the lowest sitting/standing height ratio when compared to other ethnicities, indicating relatively longer legs (Figure 2 and Figure S3). With the exception of height and sitting/standing height ratio, ethnic differences in body size increased after 9 years of age, particularly between Black African/Caribbean and South Asian children. The number of children in each age group is given in Table S1.

Bottom Line: In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities.Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight).Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Respiratory, Critical Care and Anaesthesia Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Background: Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration.

Methods: In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution.

Results: In children < 11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight).

Conclusion: Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus