How specificity and epidemiology drive the coevolution of static trait diversity in hosts and parasites.
Bottom Line: We examine theoretically how epidemiological feedbacks and the characteristics of the interaction between host types and parasites strains determine the coevolution of host-parasite diversity.The interactions include continuous characterizations of the key phenotypic features of classic gene-for-gene and matching allele models.We emphasize that although the high specificity is well known to promote temporal "Red Queen" diversity, it is costs and combinations of hosts and parasites that cannot infect that will promote static trait diversity.
Affiliation: Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom. email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Figure3 shows infection matrices with specificity and variation in infectivity and susceptibility range that do lead to the generation of polymorphism through multiple branching (in all cases, costs are imposed on host resistance and parasite transmission as indicated by Figure3, column iii). The CD analysis is undertaken on the general model (equations 1 and 2) and indicates that there is no limit to the level of diversity that can occur (details are shown in the Supporting Information). However, the CD analysis indicates that host–parasite coexistence is only possible when the number of host strains and parasite strains is equal or the host strains exceed the parasite strains by 1. This therefore permits “any” level of diversity, but imposes the restriction that if it is to occur through a process of evolutionary branching, then it requires a strict, repeating, pattern in which a host branching event is followed by a parasite branching event. AD analysis and simulations confirm the CD findings and show that for a suitable choice of trade-offs, polymorphism will evolve through a repeating process of an evolutionary branching event in the host followed by evolutionary branching event in the parasite (Fig.3, see Supporting Information for more detail and Best et al. (2010) for a discussion on the shape of trade-offs that lead to branching for the model shown in Fig.3A). This process is further highlighted in Figure4 in which simulation results of Figure3A are enhanced to indicate the position of the host and parasite branching points and to include local pairwise invadability plots for each of the current residents strains at the branching points. As predicted from the CD and AD analyses, branching occurs in a strict order of host, then parasite (Fig.4).
Affiliation: Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org.