Pyrosequencing reveals regional differences in fruit-associated fungal communities.
Bottom Line: While the molecular biology of certain fungi naturally associated with vines and wines is well characterized, complementary investigations into the ecology of fungi associated with fruiting plants is largely lacking.Here, we use deep community pyrosequencing approaches, targeted at the 26S rRNA gene, to examine the richness and composition of fungal communities associated with grapevines and test for geographical community structure among four major regions in New Zealand (NZ).Our analyses allow us to reject the hypothesis of homogeneity in fungal species richness and community composition across NZ and reveal significant differences between major areas.
Affiliation: The School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.Show MeSH
Mentions: Second, we performed a complimentary multivariate analysis of variance (MVAOVA) on community composition (i.e. relative abundances) and richness (number of 98% OGUs). We conducted these tests at all taxonomic levels where reads and OGU numbers are summed appropriately (see Supporting Information Table S1). Table 2 shows the P values revealed by these tests. These tests provide strong support for the concept that there is a regional effect on both community composition and richness at most taxonomic levels for these fruit-associated fungi. MVAOVA analyses of individual pairwise comparisons between regions show that all regions significantly differ in terms of OGU richness, but that only Central Otago differs from other regions in terms of abundances (Table 3). The average Jaccard community similarities are displayed in Fig. 2. The R2 values from MVAOVA analyses indicate that on average, 32% of variance in both community composition and diversity between samples are explained by region at both the OGU level and overall taxonomic levels. Lastly, we also visualized these data by analyses with multidimensional scaling of Jaccard distances generated from the abundances of reads for each OGU, and this reveals a pattern of regional difference that correlates strongly with the results from the suite of other tests (see Fig. 3).
Affiliation: The School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.