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The undervalued self: social class and self-evaluation.

Kraus MW, Park JW - Front Psychol (2014)

Bottom Line: In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem.In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal) share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions-a correlate of negative self-evaluation-relative to upper-class individuals.Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Champaign, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Social class ranks people on the social ladder of society, and in this research we examine how perceptions of economic standing shape the way that individuals evaluate the self. Given that reminders of one's own subordinate status in society are an indicator of how society values the self in comparison to others, we predicted that chronic lower perceptions of economic standing vis-à-vis others would explain associations between objective social class and negative self-evaluation, whereas situation-specific reminders of low economic standing would elicit negative self-evaluations, particularly in those from lower-class backgrounds. In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem. In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal) share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions-a correlate of negative self-evaluation-relative to upper-class individuals. Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.

No MeSH data available.


Negative Self-conscious affect at time 2 as a function of economic sharing condition and participant social class, controlling for baseline negative self-conscious affect (Study 2).
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Figure 2: Negative Self-conscious affect at time 2 as a function of economic sharing condition and participant social class, controlling for baseline negative self-conscious affect (Study 2).

Mentions: The interaction is plotted in Figure 2, and shows a pattern aligning with our prediction: in the equal sharing condition, upper- and lower-class participants show no differences in self-conscious emotion at time 2, t(48) = 0.29, ns. In contrast, in the low sharing condition lower-class individuals show elevated self-conscious emotion at time 2 relative to their upper-class counterparts t(51) = –2.84, p < 0.05. Moreover, when adding neuroticism to the analysis as a covariate β = 0.10, t(92) = 1.32, p = 0.20, the interaction between social class and sharing condition remained significant β = 0.15, t(92) = 2.21, p < 0.05.


The undervalued self: social class and self-evaluation.

Kraus MW, Park JW - Front Psychol (2014)

Negative Self-conscious affect at time 2 as a function of economic sharing condition and participant social class, controlling for baseline negative self-conscious affect (Study 2).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256993&req=5

Figure 2: Negative Self-conscious affect at time 2 as a function of economic sharing condition and participant social class, controlling for baseline negative self-conscious affect (Study 2).
Mentions: The interaction is plotted in Figure 2, and shows a pattern aligning with our prediction: in the equal sharing condition, upper- and lower-class participants show no differences in self-conscious emotion at time 2, t(48) = 0.29, ns. In contrast, in the low sharing condition lower-class individuals show elevated self-conscious emotion at time 2 relative to their upper-class counterparts t(51) = –2.84, p < 0.05. Moreover, when adding neuroticism to the analysis as a covariate β = 0.10, t(92) = 1.32, p = 0.20, the interaction between social class and sharing condition remained significant β = 0.15, t(92) = 2.21, p < 0.05.

Bottom Line: In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem.In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal) share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions-a correlate of negative self-evaluation-relative to upper-class individuals.Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Champaign, IL, USA.

ABSTRACT
Social class ranks people on the social ladder of society, and in this research we examine how perceptions of economic standing shape the way that individuals evaluate the self. Given that reminders of one's own subordinate status in society are an indicator of how society values the self in comparison to others, we predicted that chronic lower perceptions of economic standing vis-à-vis others would explain associations between objective social class and negative self-evaluation, whereas situation-specific reminders of low economic standing would elicit negative self-evaluations, particularly in those from lower-class backgrounds. In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem. In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal) share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions-a correlate of negative self-evaluation-relative to upper-class individuals. Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.

No MeSH data available.