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Gene expression in the chicken caecum in response to infections with non-typhoid Salmonella.

Rychlik I, Elsheimer-Matulova M, Kyrova K - Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life.This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria.This review outlines the function of individual proteins expressed in chickens after infection with non-typhoid Salmonella serovars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, Brno, 621 00, Czech Republic. rychlik@vri.cz.

ABSTRACT
Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life. However, infections within the first hours and days of their life are epidemiologically the most important, as newly hatched chickens are highly sensitive to Salmonella infection. Salmonella is initially recognized in the chicken caecum by TLR receptors and this recognition is followed by induction of chemokines, cytokines and many effector genes. This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria. The highest induction in expression is observed for matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). Expression of this gene is increased in the chicken caecum over 4000 fold during the first 10 days after the infection of newly hatched chickens. Additional highly inducible genes in the caecum following S. Enteritidis infection include immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), serum amyloid A (SAA), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (ExFABP), serine protease inhibitor (SERPINB10), trappin 6-like (TRAP6), calprotectin (MRP126), mitochondrial ES1 protein homolog (ES1), interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5), avidin (AVD) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4). The induction of expression of these proteins exceeds a factor of 50. Similar induction rates are also observed for chemokines and cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL17, IL18, IL22, IFNγ, AH221 or iNOS. Once the infection is under control, which happens approx. 2 weeks after infection, expression of IgY and IgA increases to facilitate Salmonella elimination from the gut lumen. This review outlines the function of individual proteins expressed in chickens after infection with non-typhoid Salmonella serovars.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Gene expression in the chicken caecum following oral infection withS. Enteritidis on the day of hatching. Chickens were infected on the day of hatching and expression of 45 selected genes in the chicken caecum was determined by real-time PCR including the expression in the age-matched, non-infected controls. Left panel, gene expression in the non-infected chickens, mind the increase in the expression of IgY and IgA in the second week of life. Right panel, gene expression in the caecum of infected chickens, mind the dramatic changes in the total caecal expression within 48 h after infection and also an increase in IgY and IgA expression during the recovery phase. For more details see reference [13].
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Fig2: Gene expression in the chicken caecum following oral infection withS. Enteritidis on the day of hatching. Chickens were infected on the day of hatching and expression of 45 selected genes in the chicken caecum was determined by real-time PCR including the expression in the age-matched, non-infected controls. Left panel, gene expression in the non-infected chickens, mind the increase in the expression of IgY and IgA in the second week of life. Right panel, gene expression in the caecum of infected chickens, mind the dramatic changes in the total caecal expression within 48 h after infection and also an increase in IgY and IgA expression during the recovery phase. For more details see reference [13].

Mentions: Changes in gene expression in the entire tissue can be detected by real-time PCR, western blot or ELISA. However, all these techniques require the selection of target genes or proteins to be characterised which introduces a bias into such studies. The bias can be overcome by the use of genome-wide techniques such as RNA/cDNA microarray, RNA/cDNA next generation sequencing and protein mass spectrometry. These techniques have enabled the identification of many new genes and proteins not yet associated with the chicken’s response to Salmonella infection [12,40] (Figure 2, Table 1). Such proteins, both positively and negatively correlating with infection, will be introduced in the following paragraphs.Figure 2


Gene expression in the chicken caecum in response to infections with non-typhoid Salmonella.

Rychlik I, Elsheimer-Matulova M, Kyrova K - Vet. Res. (2014)

Gene expression in the chicken caecum following oral infection withS. Enteritidis on the day of hatching. Chickens were infected on the day of hatching and expression of 45 selected genes in the chicken caecum was determined by real-time PCR including the expression in the age-matched, non-infected controls. Left panel, gene expression in the non-infected chickens, mind the increase in the expression of IgY and IgA in the second week of life. Right panel, gene expression in the caecum of infected chickens, mind the dramatic changes in the total caecal expression within 48 h after infection and also an increase in IgY and IgA expression during the recovery phase. For more details see reference [13].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256799&req=5

Fig2: Gene expression in the chicken caecum following oral infection withS. Enteritidis on the day of hatching. Chickens were infected on the day of hatching and expression of 45 selected genes in the chicken caecum was determined by real-time PCR including the expression in the age-matched, non-infected controls. Left panel, gene expression in the non-infected chickens, mind the increase in the expression of IgY and IgA in the second week of life. Right panel, gene expression in the caecum of infected chickens, mind the dramatic changes in the total caecal expression within 48 h after infection and also an increase in IgY and IgA expression during the recovery phase. For more details see reference [13].
Mentions: Changes in gene expression in the entire tissue can be detected by real-time PCR, western blot or ELISA. However, all these techniques require the selection of target genes or proteins to be characterised which introduces a bias into such studies. The bias can be overcome by the use of genome-wide techniques such as RNA/cDNA microarray, RNA/cDNA next generation sequencing and protein mass spectrometry. These techniques have enabled the identification of many new genes and proteins not yet associated with the chicken’s response to Salmonella infection [12,40] (Figure 2, Table 1). Such proteins, both positively and negatively correlating with infection, will be introduced in the following paragraphs.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life.This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria.This review outlines the function of individual proteins expressed in chickens after infection with non-typhoid Salmonella serovars.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, Brno, 621 00, Czech Republic. rychlik@vri.cz.

ABSTRACT
Chickens can be infected with Salmonella enterica at any time during their life. However, infections within the first hours and days of their life are epidemiologically the most important, as newly hatched chickens are highly sensitive to Salmonella infection. Salmonella is initially recognized in the chicken caecum by TLR receptors and this recognition is followed by induction of chemokines, cytokines and many effector genes. This results in infiltration of heterophils, macrophages, B- and T-lymphocytes and changes in total gene expression in the caecal lamina propria. The highest induction in expression is observed for matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). Expression of this gene is increased in the chicken caecum over 4000 fold during the first 10 days after the infection of newly hatched chickens. Additional highly inducible genes in the caecum following S. Enteritidis infection include immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1), serum amyloid A (SAA), extracellular fatty acid binding protein (ExFABP), serine protease inhibitor (SERPINB10), trappin 6-like (TRAP6), calprotectin (MRP126), mitochondrial ES1 protein homolog (ES1), interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5 (IFIT5), avidin (AVD) and transglutaminase 4 (TGM4). The induction of expression of these proteins exceeds a factor of 50. Similar induction rates are also observed for chemokines and cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL17, IL18, IL22, IFNγ, AH221 or iNOS. Once the infection is under control, which happens approx. 2 weeks after infection, expression of IgY and IgA increases to facilitate Salmonella elimination from the gut lumen. This review outlines the function of individual proteins expressed in chickens after infection with non-typhoid Salmonella serovars.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus