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Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

Raikos V, Neacsu M, Russell W, Duthie G - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour.Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs).Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Natural Products Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen AB21 9SB, Scotland, UK.

ABSTRACT
The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of pH on water binding capacity of flours. Water binding capacity is expressed as gram of water retained per gram of sample. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.
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fig05: Effect of pH on water binding capacity of flours. Water binding capacity is expressed as gram of water retained per gram of sample. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.

Mentions: WHC is the ability of a food product to physically hold water against gravity (Kinsella 1979). It is an important property of flours which to a large extent determines their applicability as food ingredients. Hence flours with high WHC are widely used in meat products, custards and soups to enhance body thickening and viscosity, and in baked products to improve freshness and handling characteristics (Wolf 1970). The WHC of the flours in the present study was not affected by pH (Fig.5). However, significant differences were observed between the water binding properties of the different types of flours and followed the order lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. As protein content appears to be a critical determinant of the ability of the flours to imbibe water, the WHC of lupin and hemp may be a reflection of their high protein content (Table1). Similar WHC (1.34 mL/g) for lupin flour has been previously documented by other researchers (Khalid and Elharadallou 2013). Accordingly, the decreased ability of wheat flour to bind water may be attributed to the low protein content (129 g kg−1) of this sample. Furthermore, other factors such as the polar to nonpolar amino acid ratios may influence WHC as polar amino acid residues have an affinity for water molecules (Zayas 1997). However, effects of hydrophilic carbohydrates such as polysaccharides on WHC are unlikely (Kaur et al. 2007).


Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

Raikos V, Neacsu M, Russell W, Duthie G - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Effect of pH on water binding capacity of flours. Water binding capacity is expressed as gram of water retained per gram of sample. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256586&req=5

fig05: Effect of pH on water binding capacity of flours. Water binding capacity is expressed as gram of water retained per gram of sample. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.
Mentions: WHC is the ability of a food product to physically hold water against gravity (Kinsella 1979). It is an important property of flours which to a large extent determines their applicability as food ingredients. Hence flours with high WHC are widely used in meat products, custards and soups to enhance body thickening and viscosity, and in baked products to improve freshness and handling characteristics (Wolf 1970). The WHC of the flours in the present study was not affected by pH (Fig.5). However, significant differences were observed between the water binding properties of the different types of flours and followed the order lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. As protein content appears to be a critical determinant of the ability of the flours to imbibe water, the WHC of lupin and hemp may be a reflection of their high protein content (Table1). Similar WHC (1.34 mL/g) for lupin flour has been previously documented by other researchers (Khalid and Elharadallou 2013). Accordingly, the decreased ability of wheat flour to bind water may be attributed to the low protein content (129 g kg−1) of this sample. Furthermore, other factors such as the polar to nonpolar amino acid ratios may influence WHC as polar amino acid residues have an affinity for water molecules (Zayas 1997). However, effects of hydrophilic carbohydrates such as polysaccharides on WHC are unlikely (Kaur et al. 2007).

Bottom Line: In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour.Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs).Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Natural Products Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen AB21 9SB, Scotland, UK.

ABSTRACT
The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

No MeSH data available.