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Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

Raikos V, Neacsu M, Russell W, Duthie G - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour.Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs).Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Natural Products Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen AB21 9SB, Scotland, UK.

ABSTRACT
The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

No MeSH data available.


Solubility of flours at pH 4, 7, and 10. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.
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fig01: Solubility of flours at pH 4, 7, and 10. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.

Mentions: The protein solubility profiles of all the flours used in the present study were clearly pH dependent increasing over a pH range from 4 to 10 (Fig.1). Similar findings have been reported for other flours (Adebowale and Lawal 2004; Ma et al. 2011; Sreerama et al. 2012; Sridaran et al. 2012). At pH 4, which is near the isoelectric point of most proteins, protein–protein interactions are favored because of negligible molecular repulsion. Formation and subsequent precipitation of large molecular weight aggregates may arise, thus reducing protein solubility. Greater protein solubility above the isoelectric point at higher pH is likely associated with increased negative charge, ionic hydration, and electrostatic repulsion (Lawal 2004; Moure et al. 2006). In the present study, wheat flour proteins were the most soluble at pH 4. However, with the exception of hemp (pH 7) and lupin (pH 10) within the pH range 7–10 the protein content of wheat flour was less soluble than most other samples. Hemp, buckwheat, and green pea flours had the highest increase in solubility at pH 10. In contrast, there was a relatively small and steady increase in protein solubility of wheat flour in response to pH.


Comparative study of the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours as affected by pH.

Raikos V, Neacsu M, Russell W, Duthie G - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Solubility of flours at pH 4, 7, and 10. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256586&req=5

fig01: Solubility of flours at pH 4, 7, and 10. Results are presented as mean ± SE for triplicate analyses.
Mentions: The protein solubility profiles of all the flours used in the present study were clearly pH dependent increasing over a pH range from 4 to 10 (Fig.1). Similar findings have been reported for other flours (Adebowale and Lawal 2004; Ma et al. 2011; Sreerama et al. 2012; Sridaran et al. 2012). At pH 4, which is near the isoelectric point of most proteins, protein–protein interactions are favored because of negligible molecular repulsion. Formation and subsequent precipitation of large molecular weight aggregates may arise, thus reducing protein solubility. Greater protein solubility above the isoelectric point at higher pH is likely associated with increased negative charge, ionic hydration, and electrostatic repulsion (Lawal 2004; Moure et al. 2006). In the present study, wheat flour proteins were the most soluble at pH 4. However, with the exception of hemp (pH 7) and lupin (pH 10) within the pH range 7–10 the protein content of wheat flour was less soluble than most other samples. Hemp, buckwheat, and green pea flours had the highest increase in solubility at pH 10. In contrast, there was a relatively small and steady increase in protein solubility of wheat flour in response to pH.

Bottom Line: In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour.Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs).Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Natural Products Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen AB21 9SB, Scotland, UK.

ABSTRACT
The demand for products of high nutritional value from sustainable sources is growing rapidly in the global food market. In this study, the effect of pH on the functional properties of lupin, green pea, fava bean, hemp, and buckwheat flours was investigated and compared with wheat flour. Functional properties included solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, gelling ability, and water holding capacity (WHC). All flours had minimal solubility at pH 4 and their corresponding values increased with increasing pH. Emulsifying properties were improved at pH 10 for all samples and emulsion stability showed a similar trend. Increasing pH in the range 4-10 enhanced the foaming properties of the flours, particularly buckwheat and hemp. Wheat, green pea, buckwheat, and fava bean were more capable of forming firm gels compared with lupin and hemp, as indicated by least gelling concentrations (LGCs). The ranking of the water binding properties of the different types of flours were lupin>hemp>fava bean>buckwheat>green pea>wheat. Results indicate that underutilized flours from sustainable plant sources could be exploited by the food industry as functional food ingredients or as replacements of wheat flour for various food applications. Depending on the application, flour functionality may be effectively tailored by pH adjustment.

No MeSH data available.