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The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

Boonpeng S, Siripongvutikorn S, Sae-Wong C, Sutthirak P - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects.For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS).Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Functional Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Anti-Cd toxicity properties on HEK293 cells determined using MTT assay. (A) The cells were treated with samples and standard before exposure Cd; (B) the cells were treated with samples, standard, and Cd together; and (C) the cells were exposed to Cd before treated samples and standard; each value is expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3).
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fig03: Anti-Cd toxicity properties on HEK293 cells determined using MTT assay. (A) The cells were treated with samples and standard before exposure Cd; (B) the cells were treated with samples, standard, and Cd together; and (C) the cells were exposed to Cd before treated samples and standard; each value is expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3).

Mentions: Generally, cell viability was the highest (more than 50%) in the cell that was treated with the extracts and DADS before exposure to CdCl2 at a concentration 135.8 μmol/L (Fig.3A) when compared with other treatments (Fig.3B,C). Moreover, cell viability significantly increased when the extracts and DADS increased (Fig.3A). Surprisingly, pickled garlic extract expressed high anti-Cd than fresh and DADS samples when treated CdCl2 in the sample in the same time of extracts or DADS (Fig.3B). In addition, higher DADS concentration caused more cell death compared with the extract samples (Fig.3B). It implied that pure DADS played a role in CdCl2 toxicity while at a lower concentration it turned out to be an anti-Cd agent and at a higher concentration it enhanced Cd toxicity. However, the injured cell when treated with CdCl2 did not recover by using the extracts or DADS (Fig.3C), suggesting that the extracts and DADS possessed a greater protective effect than curing effect.


The antioxidant and anti-cadmium toxicity properties of garlic extracts.

Boonpeng S, Siripongvutikorn S, Sae-Wong C, Sutthirak P - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Anti-Cd toxicity properties on HEK293 cells determined using MTT assay. (A) The cells were treated with samples and standard before exposure Cd; (B) the cells were treated with samples, standard, and Cd together; and (C) the cells were exposed to Cd before treated samples and standard; each value is expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256585&req=5

fig03: Anti-Cd toxicity properties on HEK293 cells determined using MTT assay. (A) The cells were treated with samples and standard before exposure Cd; (B) the cells were treated with samples, standard, and Cd together; and (C) the cells were exposed to Cd before treated samples and standard; each value is expressed as mean ± SD (n = 3).
Mentions: Generally, cell viability was the highest (more than 50%) in the cell that was treated with the extracts and DADS before exposure to CdCl2 at a concentration 135.8 μmol/L (Fig.3A) when compared with other treatments (Fig.3B,C). Moreover, cell viability significantly increased when the extracts and DADS increased (Fig.3A). Surprisingly, pickled garlic extract expressed high anti-Cd than fresh and DADS samples when treated CdCl2 in the sample in the same time of extracts or DADS (Fig.3B). In addition, higher DADS concentration caused more cell death compared with the extract samples (Fig.3B). It implied that pure DADS played a role in CdCl2 toxicity while at a lower concentration it turned out to be an anti-Cd agent and at a higher concentration it enhanced Cd toxicity. However, the injured cell when treated with CdCl2 did not recover by using the extracts or DADS (Fig.3C), suggesting that the extracts and DADS possessed a greater protective effect than curing effect.

Bottom Line: Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects.For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS).Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Functional Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand.

ABSTRACT
Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a highly dangerous international problem because it can transfer into the food chain and become bioaccumulated, endangering human health. Cd detoxication is very interesting particularly the method providing no undesirable side effects. Cd also causes lipid oxidation that leads to undesired food quality. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used as conventional food and in herbal therapy and folklore medicine as an antibacterial, antitumorogenic, and antioxidant agent for over 5000 years. In the present work, fresh garlic and pickled garlic extracted with distilled water was brought to determine antioxidant activities in terms of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) assay, chelating activities, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assay. The data showed that pickled garlic extracts significantly possessed more DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, superoxide, and hydroxyl scavenging assays as 11.86, 13.74, 4.9, 46.67, and 15.33 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively, compared with fresh one as 7.44, 7.62, 0.01, 4.07, and 8.09 g trolox equivalent/g sample, respectively. However, iron chelating activity of fresh garlic extract was higher than that of pickled garlic while there was no significant difference in the copper chelating activity of both extracts. For anti-Cd properties, pickled garlic was more effective than fresh garlic and contained less toxicity than standard diallyl disulfide (DADS). Therefore, therapeutic properties of pickled garlic favored its consumption compared with fresh and standard DADS for its antioxidant and anti-Cd properties.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus