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Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

Ng'ong'ola-Manani TA, Ostlie HM, Mwangwela AM, Wicklund T - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed.Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP.Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences P.O. Box 5003, 1430, Ås, Norway ; Department of Food Science and Technology, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Bunda College Campus, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe, Malawi.

ABSTRACT
The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h).

No MeSH data available.


Changes in sugars during fermentation. Samples coded 100S, 90S, and 75S represent naturally fermented pastes, while samples coded 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS represent lactic acid-fermented pastes. Pastes are designated according to 100%, 90%, and 75% soybean composition, the remaining proportions being maize.
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fig02: Changes in sugars during fermentation. Samples coded 100S, 90S, and 75S represent naturally fermented pastes, while samples coded 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS represent lactic acid-fermented pastes. Pastes are designated according to 100%, 90%, and 75% soybean composition, the remaining proportions being maize.

Mentions: Soybeans contain about 9.94% carbohydrates in the form of polysaccharides and sugars. Fermentable sugars such as glucose and galactose ranging from 3.29 to 4.44/100 g and 2.91 to 3.36/100 g, respectively, were reported as part of the total dietary fiber (Redondo-Cuenca et al. 2007). Iheanacho (2010) reported 5.13% of maltose and 14.05% of fructose in soybeans. In this study, there were more sugars in LFP than in NFP at 0 h (Fig2) probably because of the back-slopping material which had been previously fermented and was made using malt flour. Malting increases sugar (glucose, fructose, or maltose) content due to amylolytic activities (Malleshi et al. 1986). Fermentation leads to increases and decreases in sugar content in cereal-based products (Palanisamy et al. 2012). Rapid decreases in maltose in 100SBS and 90SBS (Fig2A) could be due to its utilization as energy source and subsequent conversion into organic acids and other metabolites. The catabolism of maltose begins with its phosphorylatic cleavage catalyzed by maltose phosphorylase, yielding glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Axelsson 2004; Gänzle et al. 2007). Homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB convert glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate, which is further metabolized via glycolysis to lactic acid or via phosphogluconate pathway to yield lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and ethanol/acetic acid, respectively. Glucose can also be phosphorylated by homofermentative LAB and follow the glycolytic pathway or it can be converted to glucose-6-phosphate and follow the phosphogluconate pathway by heterofermentative LAB (Vogel et al. 1999; De Vuyst et al. 2002; Axelsson 2004; Gänzle et al. 2007).


Metabolite changes during natural and lactic acid bacteria fermentations in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends.

Ng'ong'ola-Manani TA, Ostlie HM, Mwangwela AM, Wicklund T - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Changes in sugars during fermentation. Samples coded 100S, 90S, and 75S represent naturally fermented pastes, while samples coded 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS represent lactic acid-fermented pastes. Pastes are designated according to 100%, 90%, and 75% soybean composition, the remaining proportions being maize.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256583&req=5

fig02: Changes in sugars during fermentation. Samples coded 100S, 90S, and 75S represent naturally fermented pastes, while samples coded 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS represent lactic acid-fermented pastes. Pastes are designated according to 100%, 90%, and 75% soybean composition, the remaining proportions being maize.
Mentions: Soybeans contain about 9.94% carbohydrates in the form of polysaccharides and sugars. Fermentable sugars such as glucose and galactose ranging from 3.29 to 4.44/100 g and 2.91 to 3.36/100 g, respectively, were reported as part of the total dietary fiber (Redondo-Cuenca et al. 2007). Iheanacho (2010) reported 5.13% of maltose and 14.05% of fructose in soybeans. In this study, there were more sugars in LFP than in NFP at 0 h (Fig2) probably because of the back-slopping material which had been previously fermented and was made using malt flour. Malting increases sugar (glucose, fructose, or maltose) content due to amylolytic activities (Malleshi et al. 1986). Fermentation leads to increases and decreases in sugar content in cereal-based products (Palanisamy et al. 2012). Rapid decreases in maltose in 100SBS and 90SBS (Fig2A) could be due to its utilization as energy source and subsequent conversion into organic acids and other metabolites. The catabolism of maltose begins with its phosphorylatic cleavage catalyzed by maltose phosphorylase, yielding glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Axelsson 2004; Gänzle et al. 2007). Homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB convert glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate, which is further metabolized via glycolysis to lactic acid or via phosphogluconate pathway to yield lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and ethanol/acetic acid, respectively. Glucose can also be phosphorylated by homofermentative LAB and follow the glycolytic pathway or it can be converted to glucose-6-phosphate and follow the phosphogluconate pathway by heterofermentative LAB (Vogel et al. 1999; De Vuyst et al. 2002; Axelsson 2004; Gänzle et al. 2007).

Bottom Line: A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed.Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP.Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences P.O. Box 5003, 1430, Ås, Norway ; Department of Food Science and Technology, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources Bunda College Campus, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe, Malawi.

ABSTRACT
The effect of natural and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation processes on metabolite changes in pastes of soybeans and soybean-maize blends was studied. Pastes composed of 100% soybeans, 90% soybeans and 10% maize, and 75% soybeans and 25% maize were naturally fermented (NFP), and were fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LFP). LAB fermentation processes were facilitated through back-slopping using a traditional fermented gruel, thobwa as an inoculum. Naturally fermented pastes were designated 100S, 90S, and 75S, while LFP were designated 100SBS, 90SBS, and 75SBS. All samples, except 75SBS, showed highest increase in soluble protein content at 48 h and this was highest in 100S (49%) followed by 90SBS (15%), while increases in 100SBS, 90S, and 75S were about 12%. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in total amino acids throughout fermentation were attributed to cysteine in 100S and 90S; and methionine in 100S and 90SBS. A 3.2% increase in sum of total amino acids was observed in 75SBS at 72 h, while decreases up to 7.4% in 100SBS at 48 and 72 h, 6.8% in 100S at 48 h and 4.7% in 75S at 72 h were observed. Increases in free amino acids throughout fermentation were observed in glutamate (NFP and 75SBS), GABA and alanine (LFP). Lactic acid was 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher in LFP than in NFP, and other organic acids detected were acetate and succinate. Maltose levels were the highest among the reducing sugars and were two to four times higher in LFP than in NFP at the beginning of the fermentation, but at 72 h, only fructose levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LFP than in NFP. Enzyme activities were higher in LFP at 0 h, but at 72 h, the enzyme activities were higher in NFP. Both fermentation processes improved nutritional quality through increased protein and amino acid solubility and degradation of phytic acid (85% in NFP and 49% in LFP by 72 h).

No MeSH data available.