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Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage.

Lu Y, Young OA, Brooks JD - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001).Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia.Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg(-1)) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 2(3) factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of BCFAs/skatole, spice, and cure combinations on the mean liking of fermented sausage. Shaded squares in the lower section mean that factor was applied to that treatment; numbers 1–8 are referred to in the text. Vertical lines are standard deviations and means with different letters are significantly different atP < 0.05.
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fig02: Effect of BCFAs/skatole, spice, and cure combinations on the mean liking of fermented sausage. Shaded squares in the lower section mean that factor was applied to that treatment; numbers 1–8 are referred to in the text. Vertical lines are standard deviations and means with different letters are significantly different atP < 0.05.

Mentions: Figure2 (upper) shows the means and standard deviations for liking of the eight treatments for whichP < 0.001. Inspection suggests that Cure (bars 5–8 vs. 1–4) had no significant effect on liking, and this was confirmed by analysis of variance (P = 0.82, Table3). Compared with the no-addition control (bar 2), addition of BCFAs/skatole but no Spice (bars 1 and 5), resulted in the lowest scores (4.82 and 4.95) that were significantly different from three treatments, bars 4, 7, and 8. All these three had spice added. Numerically, the two most favored treatments were 4 and 8 (6.15 and 6.22), due to Spice alone with no effect due to Cure. Analysis of variance showed there were no significant interactions between any combination of BCFAs/skatole, Spice and Cure, so data could be selectively pooled to isolate the effects of these three factors in the context of the entire experiment (Table3). In both absolute numerical and statistical terms, Spice was the most influential in the liking score and was very effective in suppressing the adverse flavors due to BCFAs and/or skatole. The flavor hypothesis was confirmed for Spice, but not for Cure.


Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage.

Lu Y, Young OA, Brooks JD - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Effect of BCFAs/skatole, spice, and cure combinations on the mean liking of fermented sausage. Shaded squares in the lower section mean that factor was applied to that treatment; numbers 1–8 are referred to in the text. Vertical lines are standard deviations and means with different letters are significantly different atP < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256571&req=5

fig02: Effect of BCFAs/skatole, spice, and cure combinations on the mean liking of fermented sausage. Shaded squares in the lower section mean that factor was applied to that treatment; numbers 1–8 are referred to in the text. Vertical lines are standard deviations and means with different letters are significantly different atP < 0.05.
Mentions: Figure2 (upper) shows the means and standard deviations for liking of the eight treatments for whichP < 0.001. Inspection suggests that Cure (bars 5–8 vs. 1–4) had no significant effect on liking, and this was confirmed by analysis of variance (P = 0.82, Table3). Compared with the no-addition control (bar 2), addition of BCFAs/skatole but no Spice (bars 1 and 5), resulted in the lowest scores (4.82 and 4.95) that were significantly different from three treatments, bars 4, 7, and 8. All these three had spice added. Numerically, the two most favored treatments were 4 and 8 (6.15 and 6.22), due to Spice alone with no effect due to Cure. Analysis of variance showed there were no significant interactions between any combination of BCFAs/skatole, Spice and Cure, so data could be selectively pooled to isolate the effects of these three factors in the context of the entire experiment (Table3). In both absolute numerical and statistical terms, Spice was the most influential in the liking score and was very effective in suppressing the adverse flavors due to BCFAs and/or skatole. The flavor hypothesis was confirmed for Spice, but not for Cure.

Bottom Line: In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001).Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia.Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg(-1)) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 2(3) factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus