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Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage.

Lu Y, Young OA, Brooks JD - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Bottom Line: In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001).Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia.Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg(-1)) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 2(3) factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Production flow chart for the eight treatments.
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fig01: Production flow chart for the eight treatments.

Mentions: In this experiment, eight treatments were required to satisfy the 23 design. To achieve this, lean beef and fat bought at retail were diced and hand mixed in the ratio of 2.14:1 (lean:fat), sufficient for the entire experiment (Fig.1). One half was to become the BCFAs/skatole treatment and the other was the No-BCFAs/skatole treatment. Solutions of the BCFAs and skatole were prepared in ethanol, and addition to the fat was achieved with a 10 μL glass syringe, whereby minute aliquots were injected into the fat pieces with the aim of achieving an even distribution after grinding. In the No-BCFAs/skatole treatment half an equal volume of ethanol was similarly added to the diced fat (Fig.1). Based on Prescott et al. (2001), the final concentrations of 4-MeO, 4-MeN, and skatole in four of the final eight treatments were 5, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively (Table1). After further hand mixing of the two lean and fat lots, they were ground once through a 4-mm plate of the grinder.


Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage.

Lu Y, Young OA, Brooks JD - Food Sci Nutr (2014)

Production flow chart for the eight treatments.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256571&req=5

fig01: Production flow chart for the eight treatments.
Mentions: In this experiment, eight treatments were required to satisfy the 23 design. To achieve this, lean beef and fat bought at retail were diced and hand mixed in the ratio of 2.14:1 (lean:fat), sufficient for the entire experiment (Fig.1). One half was to become the BCFAs/skatole treatment and the other was the No-BCFAs/skatole treatment. Solutions of the BCFAs and skatole were prepared in ethanol, and addition to the fat was achieved with a 10 μL glass syringe, whereby minute aliquots were injected into the fat pieces with the aim of achieving an even distribution after grinding. In the No-BCFAs/skatole treatment half an equal volume of ethanol was similarly added to the diced fat (Fig.1). Based on Prescott et al. (2001), the final concentrations of 4-MeO, 4-MeN, and skatole in four of the final eight treatments were 5, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively (Table1). After further hand mixing of the two lean and fat lots, they were ground once through a 4-mm plate of the grinder.

Bottom Line: In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001).Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia.Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology Auckland, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg(-1)) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 2(3) factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1-9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name "mutton" in some markets would adversely affect prospects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus