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An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain.

Cuomo RE, Mackey TK - BMJ Open (2014)

Bottom Line: These data were used to generate the overarching study outcome, which was a recommendation for a strategy for drug safety surveillance congruent with existing literature on counterfeit medication.Importantly, the information generated by these analyses could be utilised to identify at-risk populations associated with demographic characteristics.Stakeholders should explore these results as another tool to improve on counterfeit medicine surveillance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Global Health Policy Institute, La Jolla, California, USA Joint Doctoral Program in Global Public Health, University of California, San Diego-San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Choropleth maps of the USA with categorisations, at the zip code level, for demographic correlates of interest, specifically (A) number of individuals over age 65, (B) number of households with married couple and no children, (C) number of white individuals, and (D) number of individuals per square mile.
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BMJOPEN2014006657F1: Choropleth maps of the USA with categorisations, at the zip code level, for demographic correlates of interest, specifically (A) number of individuals over age 65, (B) number of households with married couple and no children, (C) number of white individuals, and (D) number of individuals per square mile.

Mentions: Geospatial analyses indicated that the more correlated demographic variables were typically in higher categories in zip codes that had received counterfeit notices (figure 1). The most correlated demographic variables followed Poisson distributions, so three categories were designated for these variables: below 85th centile, 85th to 98.5th centile, and above 98.5th centile. This analysis also revealed a notable number of zip codes that had not received counterfeit notices, despite having relatively higher categories of identified demographic correlates. When conducting mapping of addresses for North American counterfeit distributors along with counterfeit notice recipients, visualisation revealed that some distributors appeared to be located among clusters of counterfeit notices (Southern California and New York), while other distributors did not appear to be located among clusters of counterfeit notices and were even located outside of the USA (ie, Canada; figure 2).


An exploration of counterfeit medicine surveillance strategies guided by geospatial analysis: lessons learned from counterfeit Avastin detection in the US drug supply chain.

Cuomo RE, Mackey TK - BMJ Open (2014)

Choropleth maps of the USA with categorisations, at the zip code level, for demographic correlates of interest, specifically (A) number of individuals over age 65, (B) number of households with married couple and no children, (C) number of white individuals, and (D) number of individuals per square mile.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256545&req=5

BMJOPEN2014006657F1: Choropleth maps of the USA with categorisations, at the zip code level, for demographic correlates of interest, specifically (A) number of individuals over age 65, (B) number of households with married couple and no children, (C) number of white individuals, and (D) number of individuals per square mile.
Mentions: Geospatial analyses indicated that the more correlated demographic variables were typically in higher categories in zip codes that had received counterfeit notices (figure 1). The most correlated demographic variables followed Poisson distributions, so three categories were designated for these variables: below 85th centile, 85th to 98.5th centile, and above 98.5th centile. This analysis also revealed a notable number of zip codes that had not received counterfeit notices, despite having relatively higher categories of identified demographic correlates. When conducting mapping of addresses for North American counterfeit distributors along with counterfeit notice recipients, visualisation revealed that some distributors appeared to be located among clusters of counterfeit notices (Southern California and New York), while other distributors did not appear to be located among clusters of counterfeit notices and were even located outside of the USA (ie, Canada; figure 2).

Bottom Line: These data were used to generate the overarching study outcome, which was a recommendation for a strategy for drug safety surveillance congruent with existing literature on counterfeit medication.Importantly, the information generated by these analyses could be utilised to identify at-risk populations associated with demographic characteristics.Stakeholders should explore these results as another tool to improve on counterfeit medicine surveillance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Global Health Policy Institute, La Jolla, California, USA Joint Doctoral Program in Global Public Health, University of California, San Diego-San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus