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An assessment of the impact of the JSY cash transfer program on maternal mortality reduction in Madhya Pradesh, India.

Ng M, Misra A, Diwan V, Agnani M, Levin-Rector A, De Costa A - Glob Health Action (2014)

Bottom Line: Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts.The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes.Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable to deliver care of adequate quality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Institution of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Indian Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program is a demand-side program in which the state pays women a cash incentive to deliver in an institution, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. The JSY has had 54 million beneficiaries since inception 7 years ago. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effect of JSY on coverage, few have examined the direct impact of the program on maternal mortality.

Objective: To study the impact of JSY on maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh (MP), one of India's largest provinces.

Design: By synthesizing data from various sources, district-level maternal mortality ratios (MMR) from 2005 to 2010 were estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. Based on these, a mixed effects multilevel regression model was applied to assess the impact of JSY. Specifically, the association between JSY intensity, as reflected by 1) proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries, 2) total annual JSY expenditure, and 3) MMR, was examined.

Results: The proportion of all institutional deliveries increased from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 province-wide. The proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries rose from 14% (2005) to 80% (2010). MMR declines in the districts varied from 2 to 35% over this period. Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts. The results from the analysis examining the association between MMR and JSY expenditure are similar.

Conclusions: Our analysis was unable to detect an association between maternal mortality reduction and the JSY in MP. The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes. The lack of significant impact could be related to supply-side constraints. Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable to deliver care of adequate quality.

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Percentage changes in institutional delivery and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the districts of Madhya Pradesh between 2005 and 2010.
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Figure 0004: Percentage changes in institutional delivery and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the districts of Madhya Pradesh between 2005 and 2010.

Mentions: We first report the results from our descriptive analysis. The rise in institutional delivery in the districts of MP between 2005 and 2010 is shown in Fig. 3. Changes in maternal mortality and institutional deliveries (both JSY and non-JSY) in the districts of MP between 2005 and 2010 are shown in Fig. 4. For the state as a whole, MMR declined by 12% between 2005 and 2010, from 371 (CI: 241, 511) to 327 (CI: 212, 474) as estimated by our model. Large inter-district variation was observed in the percentage decline ranging from 34.8 to 2%. During the same period, overall institutional deliveries rose from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 in MP. The increase in institutional deliveries also varied considerably across districts ranging from 7.6 to 54%. The changes in MMR over time and the proportion of institutional delivery in each of the districts are presented in Supplementary Appendix II Section 2.


An assessment of the impact of the JSY cash transfer program on maternal mortality reduction in Madhya Pradesh, India.

Ng M, Misra A, Diwan V, Agnani M, Levin-Rector A, De Costa A - Glob Health Action (2014)

Percentage changes in institutional delivery and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the districts of Madhya Pradesh between 2005 and 2010.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256523&req=5

Figure 0004: Percentage changes in institutional delivery and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in the districts of Madhya Pradesh between 2005 and 2010.
Mentions: We first report the results from our descriptive analysis. The rise in institutional delivery in the districts of MP between 2005 and 2010 is shown in Fig. 3. Changes in maternal mortality and institutional deliveries (both JSY and non-JSY) in the districts of MP between 2005 and 2010 are shown in Fig. 4. For the state as a whole, MMR declined by 12% between 2005 and 2010, from 371 (CI: 241, 511) to 327 (CI: 212, 474) as estimated by our model. Large inter-district variation was observed in the percentage decline ranging from 34.8 to 2%. During the same period, overall institutional deliveries rose from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 in MP. The increase in institutional deliveries also varied considerably across districts ranging from 7.6 to 54%. The changes in MMR over time and the proportion of institutional delivery in each of the districts are presented in Supplementary Appendix II Section 2.

Bottom Line: Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts.The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes.Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable to deliver care of adequate quality.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Global Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Institution of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: The Indian Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program is a demand-side program in which the state pays women a cash incentive to deliver in an institution, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. The JSY has had 54 million beneficiaries since inception 7 years ago. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effect of JSY on coverage, few have examined the direct impact of the program on maternal mortality.

Objective: To study the impact of JSY on maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh (MP), one of India's largest provinces.

Design: By synthesizing data from various sources, district-level maternal mortality ratios (MMR) from 2005 to 2010 were estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. Based on these, a mixed effects multilevel regression model was applied to assess the impact of JSY. Specifically, the association between JSY intensity, as reflected by 1) proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries, 2) total annual JSY expenditure, and 3) MMR, was examined.

Results: The proportion of all institutional deliveries increased from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 province-wide. The proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries rose from 14% (2005) to 80% (2010). MMR declines in the districts varied from 2 to 35% over this period. Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts. The results from the analysis examining the association between MMR and JSY expenditure are similar.

Conclusions: Our analysis was unable to detect an association between maternal mortality reduction and the JSY in MP. The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes. The lack of significant impact could be related to supply-side constraints. Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable to deliver care of adequate quality.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus