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An updated insight into the Sialotranscriptome of Triatoma infestans: developmental stage and geographic variations.

Schwarz A, Medrano-Mercado N, Schaub GA, Struchiner CJ, Bargues MD, Levy MZ, Ribeiro JM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Bottom Line: Transcripts that were over 10-fold overexpressed from different geographical regions, or from different developmental stages were identified.Polymorphisms were mapped to derived coding sequences, and found to vary between developmental instars and geographic origin of the biological material.This expanded sialome database from T. infestans should be of assistance in future proteomic work attempting to identify salivary proteins that might be used as epidemiological markers of vector exposure, or proteins of pharmacological interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT

Background: Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in South America. As in all hematophagous arthropods, its saliva contains a complex cocktail that assists blood feeding by preventing platelet aggregation and blood clotting and promoting vasodilation. These salivary components can be immunologically recognized by their vector's hosts and targeted with antibodies that might disrupt blood feeding. These antibodies can be used to detect vector exposure using immunoassays. Antibodies may also contribute to the fast evolution of the salivary cocktail.

Methodology: Salivary gland cDNA libraries from nymphal and adult T. infestans of breeding colonies originating from different locations (Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia), and cDNA libraries originating from F1 populations of Bolivia, were sequenced using Illumina technology. Coding sequences (CDS) were extracted from the assembled reads, the numbers of reads mapped to these CDS, sequences were functionally annotated and polymorphisms determined.

Main findings/significance: Over five thousand CDS, mostly full length or near full length, were publicly deposited on GenBank. Transcripts that were over 10-fold overexpressed from different geographical regions, or from different developmental stages were identified. Polymorphisms were mapped to derived coding sequences, and found to vary between developmental instars and geographic origin of the biological material. This expanded sialome database from T. infestans should be of assistance in future proteomic work attempting to identify salivary proteins that might be used as epidemiological markers of vector exposure, or proteins of pharmacological interest.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Polymorphism values derived from adult and nymphal coding sequences from different colonies.For each colony (Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivian colony and Bolivian F1) synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined as indicated in the methods section. The bars represent the average and SE of 5,391 polymorphic CDS.
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pntd-0003372-g002: Polymorphism values derived from adult and nymphal coding sequences from different colonies.For each colony (Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivian colony and Bolivian F1) synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined as indicated in the methods section. The bars represent the average and SE of 5,391 polymorphic CDS.

Mentions: The degree of polymorphism was also compared among the ten sequenced libraries using the 5,391 polymorphic CDS mentioned above (Fig. 2). Results indicate that polymorphisms are lower in the Peruvian and Bolivian colony libraries, but somewhat surprisingly the nymphal Argentinian library has significant less polymorphism than the adult counterpart, as is the case of the Bolivian F1 library. The Chilean strain that was collected in 1979 has higher polymorphism than the Peruvian strains collected 30 years later, or the recently collected (2012) Bolivian strains. The observed differences do not appear to derive from CDS coverage depth differences between libraries, because the average RPKM for each library were not significantly different, the minimum being 49.1±4.7 (average ± SE) for the Bolivian adult colony and the maximum being 60.5±8.51 for the Peruvian adult library, considering the 5,391 CDS. The differences here observed between nymphs and adults as well as from different geographical areas are congruent to previous T. infestans salivary immunological studies [23]. The polymorphism differences between long colonized and more recently colonized insects indicate that colonization time not necessarily leads to reduced polymorphism, which may be maintained by the immune pressure created by using and reusing live animals for colony maintenance.


An updated insight into the Sialotranscriptome of Triatoma infestans: developmental stage and geographic variations.

Schwarz A, Medrano-Mercado N, Schaub GA, Struchiner CJ, Bargues MD, Levy MZ, Ribeiro JM - PLoS Negl Trop Dis (2014)

Polymorphism values derived from adult and nymphal coding sequences from different colonies.For each colony (Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivian colony and Bolivian F1) synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined as indicated in the methods section. The bars represent the average and SE of 5,391 polymorphic CDS.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256203&req=5

pntd-0003372-g002: Polymorphism values derived from adult and nymphal coding sequences from different colonies.For each colony (Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivian colony and Bolivian F1) synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined as indicated in the methods section. The bars represent the average and SE of 5,391 polymorphic CDS.
Mentions: The degree of polymorphism was also compared among the ten sequenced libraries using the 5,391 polymorphic CDS mentioned above (Fig. 2). Results indicate that polymorphisms are lower in the Peruvian and Bolivian colony libraries, but somewhat surprisingly the nymphal Argentinian library has significant less polymorphism than the adult counterpart, as is the case of the Bolivian F1 library. The Chilean strain that was collected in 1979 has higher polymorphism than the Peruvian strains collected 30 years later, or the recently collected (2012) Bolivian strains. The observed differences do not appear to derive from CDS coverage depth differences between libraries, because the average RPKM for each library were not significantly different, the minimum being 49.1±4.7 (average ± SE) for the Bolivian adult colony and the maximum being 60.5±8.51 for the Peruvian adult library, considering the 5,391 CDS. The differences here observed between nymphs and adults as well as from different geographical areas are congruent to previous T. infestans salivary immunological studies [23]. The polymorphism differences between long colonized and more recently colonized insects indicate that colonization time not necessarily leads to reduced polymorphism, which may be maintained by the immune pressure created by using and reusing live animals for colony maintenance.

Bottom Line: Transcripts that were over 10-fold overexpressed from different geographical regions, or from different developmental stages were identified.Polymorphisms were mapped to derived coding sequences, and found to vary between developmental instars and geographic origin of the biological material.This expanded sialome database from T. infestans should be of assistance in future proteomic work attempting to identify salivary proteins that might be used as epidemiological markers of vector exposure, or proteins of pharmacological interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT

Background: Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in South America. As in all hematophagous arthropods, its saliva contains a complex cocktail that assists blood feeding by preventing platelet aggregation and blood clotting and promoting vasodilation. These salivary components can be immunologically recognized by their vector's hosts and targeted with antibodies that might disrupt blood feeding. These antibodies can be used to detect vector exposure using immunoassays. Antibodies may also contribute to the fast evolution of the salivary cocktail.

Methodology: Salivary gland cDNA libraries from nymphal and adult T. infestans of breeding colonies originating from different locations (Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia), and cDNA libraries originating from F1 populations of Bolivia, were sequenced using Illumina technology. Coding sequences (CDS) were extracted from the assembled reads, the numbers of reads mapped to these CDS, sequences were functionally annotated and polymorphisms determined.

Main findings/significance: Over five thousand CDS, mostly full length or near full length, were publicly deposited on GenBank. Transcripts that were over 10-fold overexpressed from different geographical regions, or from different developmental stages were identified. Polymorphisms were mapped to derived coding sequences, and found to vary between developmental instars and geographic origin of the biological material. This expanded sialome database from T. infestans should be of assistance in future proteomic work attempting to identify salivary proteins that might be used as epidemiological markers of vector exposure, or proteins of pharmacological interest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus