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Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

Wiman NG, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Rondon SI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity.Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI).We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

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Length of all discrete ‘probes’ by H. halys (a), number of ‘probes’ per insect (b), and the total time spent ‘probing’ per day (c).
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pone-0113514-g004: Length of all discrete ‘probes’ by H. halys (a), number of ‘probes’ per insect (b), and the total time spent ‘probing’ per day (c).

Mentions: We defined ‘probing’ in the broadest sense such that we included any behavior where the mouthparts contacted the food [41]. Of all of the 302 field-collected adult H. halys placed in feeding tables in this experiment, 184 ‘probed’ at least once over the 48 h assay (61% response). Only responsive insects were included in the analyses. Individual adult H. halys ‘probe’ durations ranged from 1 sec to 184.6 min. The majority of the observed ‘probes’ were relatively short in duration; the arithmetic mean duration was 3.97 min (±0.51, 95% CI; Figure 4a). Individual H. halys ‘probed’ 1–179 times per 24 h in the 48 h assay. The arithmetic mean was 9.77 ‘probes’ every 24 h (±2.79, 95% CI; Figure 4b). Summing the total duration of ‘probes’ for individual insects indicated adults spent between 1 and 559.4 min (9.32 h) ‘probing’ per day, however the arithmetic mean duration was 38.8 min per 24 h (±12.03, 95% CI; Figure 4c). ‘Probing’ activity data was highly skewed toward zero, and log transformation was used to improve normality for subsequent significance testing on these variables. Skew of pooled duration data toward zero meant that back-transformed means (geometric) shown in plots were considerably lower than arithmetic means reported above.


Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

Wiman NG, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Rondon SI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Length of all discrete ‘probes’ by H. halys (a), number of ‘probes’ per insect (b), and the total time spent ‘probing’ per day (c).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256200&req=5

pone-0113514-g004: Length of all discrete ‘probes’ by H. halys (a), number of ‘probes’ per insect (b), and the total time spent ‘probing’ per day (c).
Mentions: We defined ‘probing’ in the broadest sense such that we included any behavior where the mouthparts contacted the food [41]. Of all of the 302 field-collected adult H. halys placed in feeding tables in this experiment, 184 ‘probed’ at least once over the 48 h assay (61% response). Only responsive insects were included in the analyses. Individual adult H. halys ‘probe’ durations ranged from 1 sec to 184.6 min. The majority of the observed ‘probes’ were relatively short in duration; the arithmetic mean duration was 3.97 min (±0.51, 95% CI; Figure 4a). Individual H. halys ‘probed’ 1–179 times per 24 h in the 48 h assay. The arithmetic mean was 9.77 ‘probes’ every 24 h (±2.79, 95% CI; Figure 4b). Summing the total duration of ‘probes’ for individual insects indicated adults spent between 1 and 559.4 min (9.32 h) ‘probing’ per day, however the arithmetic mean duration was 38.8 min per 24 h (±12.03, 95% CI; Figure 4c). ‘Probing’ activity data was highly skewed toward zero, and log transformation was used to improve normality for subsequent significance testing on these variables. Skew of pooled duration data toward zero meant that back-transformed means (geometric) shown in plots were considerably lower than arithmetic means reported above.

Bottom Line: We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity.Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI).We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus