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Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

Wiman NG, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Rondon SI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity.Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI).We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

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Wiring diagram for the EMIF system including hardware.
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pone-0113514-g003: Wiring diagram for the EMIF system including hardware.

Mentions: The ground terminal on the DC power supply was wired to the ground terminal on the USB-6210. The AI SENSE terminal on the USB-6210 was wired to one of the analog channels and to the black (−) terminal on the power supply to create a non-referenced single-ended (NRSE) input configuration ([50]; Figure 3). In this configuration there were 16 feeding stations on the two feeding tables. However, there were only 15 functional feeding stations as one channel on the USB-6210 was sacrificed to connect with the AI SENSE terminal, which reduced ambient signal noise. The resistance of the circuit elements between the power source and the copper screen, and between the electrode and the USB-6210 were approximately 0.5 Ω. The green beans that were attached to the electrodes as the food source provided a mean resistance of 12.36×106 Ω (±0.57 SEM) between the electrode and surface of the bean. Analog input impedance on the USB-6210 is greater than 10×109 Ω per channel [51], so the total input resistance (Ri) in each circuit was more than 10.012×109 Ω (excluding resistance added by the feeding insect). Resistance is high enough between the surface of tarsi and mouthparts in H. halys anesthetized by CO2 that it cannot be measured with a multimeter (max = 200×106 Ω; Aide Tek VC97, Syncont. Inc., Parlin NJ). Thus, when the insect touched the surface of the bean with its mouthparts, it would experience a current of less than 4.99×10−10 A, or 0.0005 µA (A = V/Ω; Ohm’s law). This current is equivalent to using 500 mV on a standard commercial 1×109 Ω DC-EPG system (5×10−10 A). The resistors represented by the insect and the bean on both sides of the gap in the circuit between the screen and the food precluded the possibility that false readings could occur. If the bare electrode (no bean) were placed within one millimeter of the screen, only 2–4 mV could be detected from the air in the space, thus static electricity would not generate signals above what would have been classified as noise in the analysis (see data analysis below).


Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

Wiman NG, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Rondon SI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Wiring diagram for the EMIF system including hardware.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256200&req=5

pone-0113514-g003: Wiring diagram for the EMIF system including hardware.
Mentions: The ground terminal on the DC power supply was wired to the ground terminal on the USB-6210. The AI SENSE terminal on the USB-6210 was wired to one of the analog channels and to the black (−) terminal on the power supply to create a non-referenced single-ended (NRSE) input configuration ([50]; Figure 3). In this configuration there were 16 feeding stations on the two feeding tables. However, there were only 15 functional feeding stations as one channel on the USB-6210 was sacrificed to connect with the AI SENSE terminal, which reduced ambient signal noise. The resistance of the circuit elements between the power source and the copper screen, and between the electrode and the USB-6210 were approximately 0.5 Ω. The green beans that were attached to the electrodes as the food source provided a mean resistance of 12.36×106 Ω (±0.57 SEM) between the electrode and surface of the bean. Analog input impedance on the USB-6210 is greater than 10×109 Ω per channel [51], so the total input resistance (Ri) in each circuit was more than 10.012×109 Ω (excluding resistance added by the feeding insect). Resistance is high enough between the surface of tarsi and mouthparts in H. halys anesthetized by CO2 that it cannot be measured with a multimeter (max = 200×106 Ω; Aide Tek VC97, Syncont. Inc., Parlin NJ). Thus, when the insect touched the surface of the bean with its mouthparts, it would experience a current of less than 4.99×10−10 A, or 0.0005 µA (A = V/Ω; Ohm’s law). This current is equivalent to using 500 mV on a standard commercial 1×109 Ω DC-EPG system (5×10−10 A). The resistors represented by the insect and the bean on both sides of the gap in the circuit between the screen and the food precluded the possibility that false readings could occur. If the bare electrode (no bean) were placed within one millimeter of the screen, only 2–4 mV could be detected from the air in the space, thus static electricity would not generate signals above what would have been classified as noise in the analysis (see data analysis below).

Bottom Line: We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity.Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI).We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus